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Table 3.

RR of breast cancer according to total and individual intake of tomato-based products (tomatoes, tomato juice, tomato sauce, and pizza)

Categories of intake
P, linear trend
1st2nd3rd4th5th
Tomato-based food products <1.5 servings/wk 1.5 to <4 servings/wk 4 to <7 servings/wk 7 to <10 servings/wk ≥10 servings/wk  
    Number of women (breast cancer cases) 6,568 (175)* 14,206 (375) 11,368 (352) 4,587 (130) 1,717 (44)  
    Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.01 (0.85-1.21) 1.19 (0.98-1.43) 1.09 (0.86-1.38) 0.98 (0.70-1.39) 0.44 
    Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (0.81-1.23) 1.20 (0.96-1.49) 1.18 (0.89-1.55) 1.16 (0.78-1.72) 0.11 
Tomatoes None* 1-3 servings/mo 1-4 servings/wk ≥5 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 2,080 (40) 7,772 (222) 23,406 (680) 4,963 (133)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.47 (1.05-2.06) 1.44 (1.05-1.98) 1.29 (0.91-1.85)  0.94 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.54 (1.04-2.29) 1.54 (1.05-2.24) 1.45 (0.94-2.22)  0.66 
Tomato juice None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk ≥2 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 22,548 (620) 9,245 (260) 3,709 (123) 2,325 (54)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 1.17 (0.96-1.42) 0.81 (0.61-1.07)  0.36 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 0.97 (0.83-1.15) 1.16 (0.93-1.44) 0.81 (0.59-1.11)  0.37 
Tomato Sauce None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk 2-4 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 3,654 (101) 13,115 (388) 14,092 (364) 6,857 (205)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.12 (0.90-1.39) 1.01 (0.81-1.26) 1.20 (0.93-1.53)  0.20 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 0.98 (0.76-1.27) 1.23 (0.93-1.64)  0.046 
Pizza None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk ≥2 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 9,768 (259) 18,054 (542) 9,056 (250) 1,305 (20)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.23 (1.06-1.43) 1.19 (0.99-1.43) 0.66 (0.41-1.04)  0.35 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.25 (1.05-1.48) 1.17 (0.95-1.44) 0.78 (0.48-1.26)  0.54 
Categories of intake
P, linear trend
1st2nd3rd4th5th
Tomato-based food products <1.5 servings/wk 1.5 to <4 servings/wk 4 to <7 servings/wk 7 to <10 servings/wk ≥10 servings/wk  
    Number of women (breast cancer cases) 6,568 (175)* 14,206 (375) 11,368 (352) 4,587 (130) 1,717 (44)  
    Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.01 (0.85-1.21) 1.19 (0.98-1.43) 1.09 (0.86-1.38) 0.98 (0.70-1.39) 0.44 
    Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (0.81-1.23) 1.20 (0.96-1.49) 1.18 (0.89-1.55) 1.16 (0.78-1.72) 0.11 
Tomatoes None* 1-3 servings/mo 1-4 servings/wk ≥5 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 2,080 (40) 7,772 (222) 23,406 (680) 4,963 (133)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.47 (1.05-2.06) 1.44 (1.05-1.98) 1.29 (0.91-1.85)  0.94 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.54 (1.04-2.29) 1.54 (1.05-2.24) 1.45 (0.94-2.22)  0.66 
Tomato juice None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk ≥2 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 22,548 (620) 9,245 (260) 3,709 (123) 2,325 (54)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 1.17 (0.96-1.42) 0.81 (0.61-1.07)  0.36 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 0.97 (0.83-1.15) 1.16 (0.93-1.44) 0.81 (0.59-1.11)  0.37 
Tomato Sauce None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk 2-4 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 3,654 (101) 13,115 (388) 14,092 (364) 6,857 (205)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.12 (0.90-1.39) 1.01 (0.81-1.26) 1.20 (0.93-1.53)  0.20 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 0.98 (0.76-1.27) 1.23 (0.93-1.64)  0.046 
Pizza None 1-3 servings/mo 1 serving/wk ≥2 servings/wk   
Number of women (breast cancer cases) 9,768 (259) 18,054 (542) 9,056 (250) 1,305 (20)   
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.23 (1.06-1.43) 1.19 (0.99-1.43) 0.66 (0.41-1.04)  0.35 
Multivariate-adjusted RR 1.00 (ref) 1.25 (1.05-1.48) 1.17 (0.95-1.44) 0.78 (0.48-1.26)  0.54 
*

Number of events in parentheses.

Adjusted for age, total caloric intake, randomized aspirin, randomized vitamin E, and randomized β-carotene.

Adjusted for the covariates above plus body mass index, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies, postmenopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol intake, fiber intake, folate intake, saturated fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake.

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