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Table 3.

Intake of selected food groups among women in Shanghai, China and risk of breast cancer

Quartiles of intake (servings)
Food group1234P for trend
Total fruit and vegetable ≤2.3/d <3.0/d <3.8/d ≥3.8/d  
    No. cases/controls 103/260 80/270 76/267 119/273  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.69 (0.43-1.12) 0.58 (0.35-0.94) 0.47 (0.29-0.77) 0.002 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.71 (0.44-1.14) 0.59 (0.36-0.96) 0.48 (0.29-0.78) 0.003 
    Fruit ≤3.9/wk <5.9/wk <1.2/d ≥1.2/d  
    No. cases/controls 112/269 83/266 93/268 90/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.60 (0.37-0.97) 0.49 (0.31-0.78) 0.35 (0.22-0.57) <0.001 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.59 (0.36-0.96) 0.48 (0.30-0.76) 0.34 (0.21-0.55) <0.001 
    Vegetable (unsalted) ≤1.5/d <2/d <2.6/d ≥2.6/d  
    No. cases/controls 118/268 80/265 74/269 106/268  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.80 (0.51-1.26) 0.74 (0.46-1.18) 0.59 (0.37-0.93) 0.02 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.81 (0.51-1.27) 0.76 (0.48-1.22) 0.60 (0.38-0.94) 0.03 
Salted/preserved vegetable ≤0.5/mo <1.3/mo <1.1/wk ≥1.1/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/293 67/243 77/268 150/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.71 (0.44-1.13) 0.71 (0.45-1.11) 0.87 (0.57-1.32) 0.64 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.16) 0.70 (0.45-1.11) 0.87 (0.57-1.32) 0.61 
Total soyfood ≤2.6/wk <4.4/wk <1.1/d ≥1.1/d  
    No. cases/controls 78/272 87/263 100/269 113/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.97 (0.61-1.54) 1.30 (0.82-2.06) 1.06 (0.67-1.66) 0.57 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.60-1.53) 1.33 (0.84-2.12) 1.07 (0.68-1.69) 0.51 
    Unfermented soyfood ≤2.3/wk <4.2/wk <1.0/d ≥1.0/d  
    No. cases/controls 79/269 91/266 96/268 112/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.06 (0.67-1.67) 1.22 (0.77-1.92) 1.20 (0.77-1.88) 0.36 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.66-1.66) 1.23 (0.77-1.95) 1.22 (0.78-1.92) 0.31 
Fermented beancurd 0/y >0/y    
    No. cases/controls 135/446 243/624    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.92 (0.67-1.27)   0.92 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.67-1.27)   0.62 
Other legumes ≤1.9/wk <2.7/wk <3.9/wk ≥3.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 102/268 77/268 95/266 104/268  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.15) 1.00 (0.63-1.58) 0.76 (0.48-1.21) 0.46 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.73 (0.46-1.17) 1.01 (0.64-1.60) 0.78 (0.49-1.24) 0.53 
Milk products ≤1.0/mo <2.6/wk <1.0/d ≥1.0/d  
    No. cases/controls 134/252 94/279 101/267 49/272  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.91 (0.60-1.38) 1.15 (0.74-1.78) 0.91 (0.54-1.53) 0.97 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.89 (0.58-1.35) 1.12 (0.71-1.74) 0.87 (0.52-1.47) 0.90 
Total meat (unsalted) ≤2.9/wk <4.2/wk <5.9/wk ≥5.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 83/269 80/268 97/269 118/264  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.02 (0.63-1.64) 1.43 (0.89-2.32) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 0.46 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.62-1.61) 1.42 (0.88-2.30) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 0.45 
    Red meat ≤3.0/wk <4.4/wk <6.1/wk ≥6.1/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/270 84/266 85/269 125/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.11 (0.69-1.78) 1.40 (0.86-2.29) 1.22 (0.76-1.96) 0.34 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.69-1.77) 1.41 (0.87-2.31) 1.24 (0.77-1.99) 0.30 
    Poultry ≤2/mo <4/mo <1.2/wk >1.2/wk  
    No. cases/controls 106/255 102/270 91/287 79/258  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.03 (0.68-1.56) 1.08 (0.70-1.67) 0.95 (0.60-1.52) 0.95 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.68-1.58) 1.10 (0.71-1.70) 0.94 (0.59-1.49) 0.90 
    Eggs ≤2.0/wk <3.0/wk <6.0/wk ≥6.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 129/257 68/190 116/346 65/277  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.71 (0.45-1.12) 0.67 (0.44-1.01) 0.56 (0.35-0.91) 0.02 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.13) 0.68 (0.45-1.02) 0.56 (0.35-0.91) 0.02 
Total seafood ≤1.9/wk <2.9/wk <4.3/wk ≥4.3/wk  
    No. cases/controls 87/273 82/274 105/260 104/263  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.23 (0.78-1.94) 1.62 (1.02-2.55) 1.28 (0.81-2.01) 0.19 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.23 (0.78-1.96) 1.62 (1.03-2.57) 1.28 (0.81-2.02) 0.20 
    Fish (unsalted) ≤1.3/wk <2.2/wk <3.2/wk ≥4.3/wk  
    No. cases/controls 74/273 96/320 96/233 112/244  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.50 (0.95-2.36) 1.64 (1.02-2.65) 1.57 (0.98-2.49) 0.07 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.50 (0.95-2.37) 1.63 (1.01-2.63) 1.55 (0.97-2.48) 0.08 
    Shellfish ≤1.0/mo <2.0/mo <1.0/wk ≥1.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/153 91/261 89/234 114/422  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.73 (0.45-1.16) 0.82 (0.50-1.34) 0.75 (0.47-1.19) 0.38 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.74 (0.46-1.19) 0.82 (0.50-1.34) 0.76 (0.48-1.20) 0.39 
    Cured meats ≤0.5/mo <1.2/mo ≥2.0/mo   
    No. cases/controls 148/395 109/358 121/317   
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.08 (0.74-1.58) 1.17 (0.81-1.70)  0.40 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.75-1.61) 1.20 (0.82-1.74)  0.35 
Rice ≤2.0/d >2.0/d    
    No. cases/controls 70/386 308/684    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.42 (0.97-2.08)   0.07 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.43 (0.98-2.10)   0.07 
Grains except rice and corn ≤3.2/wk <5.5/wk <1.2/d ≥1.2/d  
    No. cases/controls 113/274 103/262 92/268 70/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.30 (0.84-1.99) 1.34 (0.85-2.11) 1.31 (0.78-2.23) 0.26 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.27 (0.82-1.95) 1.32 (0.84-2.08) 1.28 (0.76-2.18) 0.30 
Sesame oil (used in cooking) 0/y >0/y    
    No. cases/controls 122/146 256/924    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.59 (0.41-0.84)   0.004 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.58 (0.41-0.84)   0.004 
Soy oil (used in cooking) ≤2.4/mo <3.2/mo <4.1/mo ≥4.1/mo  
    No. cases/controls 107/268 99/295 101/265 71/242  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.83 (0.54-1.28) 1.00 (0.65-1.54) 0.70 (0.43-1.12) 0.28 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.85 (0.55-1.31) 0.99 (0.64-1.53) 0.71 (0.44-1.15) 0.29 
Total preserved/ cured foods ≤1.7/mo <3.6/mo <1.9/wk ≥1.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 79/271 72/268 75/266 152/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.93 (0.58-1.47) 0.77 (0.48-1.24) 1.05 (0.69-1.61) 0.85 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.95 (0.60-1.52) 0.77 (0.48-1.24) 1.07 (0.70-1.63) 0.84 
Fried foods ≤2.8/mo <1.2/wk <2.4/wk ≥2.4/wk  
    No. cases/controls 90/263 73/277 102/265 113/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.55 (0.35-0.89) 0.72 (0.45-1.14) 0.80 (0.50-1.26) 0.66 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.54 (0.34-0.87) 0.70 (0.44-1.12) 0.77 (0.49-1.23) 0.57 
Desserts ≤1.0/wk <2.5/wk <6.0/wk ≥6.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 140/278 86/262 93/263 59/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.84 (0.55-1.27) 1.22 (0.79-1.87) 1.13 (0.69-1.86) 0.41 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.83 (0.55-1.26) 1.21 (0.79-1.87) 1.09 (0.67-1.81) 0.46 
Quartiles of intake (servings)
Food group1234P for trend
Total fruit and vegetable ≤2.3/d <3.0/d <3.8/d ≥3.8/d  
    No. cases/controls 103/260 80/270 76/267 119/273  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.69 (0.43-1.12) 0.58 (0.35-0.94) 0.47 (0.29-0.77) 0.002 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.71 (0.44-1.14) 0.59 (0.36-0.96) 0.48 (0.29-0.78) 0.003 
    Fruit ≤3.9/wk <5.9/wk <1.2/d ≥1.2/d  
    No. cases/controls 112/269 83/266 93/268 90/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.60 (0.37-0.97) 0.49 (0.31-0.78) 0.35 (0.22-0.57) <0.001 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.59 (0.36-0.96) 0.48 (0.30-0.76) 0.34 (0.21-0.55) <0.001 
    Vegetable (unsalted) ≤1.5/d <2/d <2.6/d ≥2.6/d  
    No. cases/controls 118/268 80/265 74/269 106/268  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.80 (0.51-1.26) 0.74 (0.46-1.18) 0.59 (0.37-0.93) 0.02 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.81 (0.51-1.27) 0.76 (0.48-1.22) 0.60 (0.38-0.94) 0.03 
Salted/preserved vegetable ≤0.5/mo <1.3/mo <1.1/wk ≥1.1/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/293 67/243 77/268 150/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.71 (0.44-1.13) 0.71 (0.45-1.11) 0.87 (0.57-1.32) 0.64 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.16) 0.70 (0.45-1.11) 0.87 (0.57-1.32) 0.61 
Total soyfood ≤2.6/wk <4.4/wk <1.1/d ≥1.1/d  
    No. cases/controls 78/272 87/263 100/269 113/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.97 (0.61-1.54) 1.30 (0.82-2.06) 1.06 (0.67-1.66) 0.57 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.60-1.53) 1.33 (0.84-2.12) 1.07 (0.68-1.69) 0.51 
    Unfermented soyfood ≤2.3/wk <4.2/wk <1.0/d ≥1.0/d  
    No. cases/controls 79/269 91/266 96/268 112/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.06 (0.67-1.67) 1.22 (0.77-1.92) 1.20 (0.77-1.88) 0.36 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.66-1.66) 1.23 (0.77-1.95) 1.22 (0.78-1.92) 0.31 
Fermented beancurd 0/y >0/y    
    No. cases/controls 135/446 243/624    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.92 (0.67-1.27)   0.92 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.67-1.27)   0.62 
Other legumes ≤1.9/wk <2.7/wk <3.9/wk ≥3.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 102/268 77/268 95/266 104/268  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.15) 1.00 (0.63-1.58) 0.76 (0.48-1.21) 0.46 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.73 (0.46-1.17) 1.01 (0.64-1.60) 0.78 (0.49-1.24) 0.53 
Milk products ≤1.0/mo <2.6/wk <1.0/d ≥1.0/d  
    No. cases/controls 134/252 94/279 101/267 49/272  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.91 (0.60-1.38) 1.15 (0.74-1.78) 0.91 (0.54-1.53) 0.97 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.89 (0.58-1.35) 1.12 (0.71-1.74) 0.87 (0.52-1.47) 0.90 
Total meat (unsalted) ≤2.9/wk <4.2/wk <5.9/wk ≥5.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 83/269 80/268 97/269 118/264  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.02 (0.63-1.64) 1.43 (0.89-2.32) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 0.46 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.62-1.61) 1.42 (0.88-2.30) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 0.45 
    Red meat ≤3.0/wk <4.4/wk <6.1/wk ≥6.1/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/270 84/266 85/269 125/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.11 (0.69-1.78) 1.40 (0.86-2.29) 1.22 (0.76-1.96) 0.34 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.69-1.77) 1.41 (0.87-2.31) 1.24 (0.77-1.99) 0.30 
    Poultry ≤2/mo <4/mo <1.2/wk >1.2/wk  
    No. cases/controls 106/255 102/270 91/287 79/258  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.03 (0.68-1.56) 1.08 (0.70-1.67) 0.95 (0.60-1.52) 0.95 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.68-1.58) 1.10 (0.71-1.70) 0.94 (0.59-1.49) 0.90 
    Eggs ≤2.0/wk <3.0/wk <6.0/wk ≥6.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 129/257 68/190 116/346 65/277  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.71 (0.45-1.12) 0.67 (0.44-1.01) 0.56 (0.35-0.91) 0.02 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.72 (0.45-1.13) 0.68 (0.45-1.02) 0.56 (0.35-0.91) 0.02 
Total seafood ≤1.9/wk <2.9/wk <4.3/wk ≥4.3/wk  
    No. cases/controls 87/273 82/274 105/260 104/263  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.23 (0.78-1.94) 1.62 (1.02-2.55) 1.28 (0.81-2.01) 0.19 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.23 (0.78-1.96) 1.62 (1.03-2.57) 1.28 (0.81-2.02) 0.20 
    Fish (unsalted) ≤1.3/wk <2.2/wk <3.2/wk ≥4.3/wk  
    No. cases/controls 74/273 96/320 96/233 112/244  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.50 (0.95-2.36) 1.64 (1.02-2.65) 1.57 (0.98-2.49) 0.07 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.50 (0.95-2.37) 1.63 (1.01-2.63) 1.55 (0.97-2.48) 0.08 
    Shellfish ≤1.0/mo <2.0/mo <1.0/wk ≥1.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 84/153 91/261 89/234 114/422  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.73 (0.45-1.16) 0.82 (0.50-1.34) 0.75 (0.47-1.19) 0.38 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.74 (0.46-1.19) 0.82 (0.50-1.34) 0.76 (0.48-1.20) 0.39 
    Cured meats ≤0.5/mo <1.2/mo ≥2.0/mo   
    No. cases/controls 148/395 109/358 121/317   
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.08 (0.74-1.58) 1.17 (0.81-1.70)  0.40 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.75-1.61) 1.20 (0.82-1.74)  0.35 
Rice ≤2.0/d >2.0/d    
    No. cases/controls 70/386 308/684    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.42 (0.97-2.08)   0.07 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.43 (0.98-2.10)   0.07 
Grains except rice and corn ≤3.2/wk <5.5/wk <1.2/d ≥1.2/d  
    No. cases/controls 113/274 103/262 92/268 70/266  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.30 (0.84-1.99) 1.34 (0.85-2.11) 1.31 (0.78-2.23) 0.26 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.27 (0.82-1.95) 1.32 (0.84-2.08) 1.28 (0.76-2.18) 0.30 
Sesame oil (used in cooking) 0/y >0/y    
    No. cases/controls 122/146 256/924    
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.59 (0.41-0.84)   0.004 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.58 (0.41-0.84)   0.004 
Soy oil (used in cooking) ≤2.4/mo <3.2/mo <4.1/mo ≥4.1/mo  
    No. cases/controls 107/268 99/295 101/265 71/242  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.83 (0.54-1.28) 1.00 (0.65-1.54) 0.70 (0.43-1.12) 0.28 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.85 (0.55-1.31) 0.99 (0.64-1.53) 0.71 (0.44-1.15) 0.29 
Total preserved/ cured foods ≤1.7/mo <3.6/mo <1.9/wk ≥1.9/wk  
    No. cases/controls 79/271 72/268 75/266 152/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.93 (0.58-1.47) 0.77 (0.48-1.24) 1.05 (0.69-1.61) 0.85 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.95 (0.60-1.52) 0.77 (0.48-1.24) 1.07 (0.70-1.63) 0.84 
Fried foods ≤2.8/mo <1.2/wk <2.4/wk ≥2.4/wk  
    No. cases/controls 90/263 73/277 102/265 113/265  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.55 (0.35-0.89) 0.72 (0.45-1.14) 0.80 (0.50-1.26) 0.66 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.54 (0.34-0.87) 0.70 (0.44-1.12) 0.77 (0.49-1.23) 0.57 
Desserts ≤1.0/wk <2.5/wk <6.0/wk ≥6.0/wk  
    No. cases/controls 140/278 86/262 93/263 59/267  
    OR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.84 (0.55-1.27) 1.22 (0.79-1.87) 1.13 (0.69-1.86) 0.41 
    OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.83 (0.55-1.26) 1.21 (0.79-1.87) 1.09 (0.67-1.81) 0.46 

NOTE: All analyses stratified by year of interview (1995-1996, 1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001), using conditional logistic regression.

*

Adjusted for age and total energy intake.

Adjusted for age, total energy intake, and breast-feeding.

Preserved vegetables and cured meats and fish.

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