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Table 6.

Migration history, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women, by menopausal status—multivariate-adjusted analyses

Premenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*Postmenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*
Type of residence before migration   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    Foreign-born 1.11 (0.74-1.64) 0.61 (0.47-0.80) 
        Urban 1.19 (0.77-1.83) 0.57 (0.42-0.78) 
        Mixed urban and rural 1.07 (0.62-1.85) 0.63 (0.43-0.91) 
        Rural 1.03 (0.60-1.76) 0.73 (0.50-1.08) 
Years of residence in the United States,,§   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    ≥40 1.42 (0.42-4.75) 0.70 (0.49-1.01) 
    30-39 1.70 (0.82-3.52) 0.64 (0.43-0.93) 
    20-29 1.25 (0.72-2.15) 0.43 (0.27-0.70) 
    10-19 0.92 (0.56-1.54) 0.41 (0.25-0.68) 
    <10 0.66 (0.34-1.28) 0.43 (0.23-0.77 
 Ptrend = 0.43 Ptrend < 0.01 
Age at migration to the United States,   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    <10 1.70 (0.71-4.02) 0.75 (0.38-1.48) 
    10-19 1.26 (0.72-2.21) 0.78 (0.50-1.22) 
    20-29 1.07 (0.63-1.79) 0.53 (0.36-0.77) 
    30-39 0.79 (0.45-1.40) 0.51 (0.33-0.80) 
    ≥40 0.78 (0.30-2.06) 0.51 (0.33-0.78) 
 Ptrend = 0.47 Ptrend < 0.01 
Generation   
    Third 1.0 1.0 
    Second 0.83 (0.51-1.36) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 
    First 1.01 (0.64-1.59) 0.59 (0.42-0.83) 
 Ptrend = 0.97 Ptrend < 0.01 
Birthplace of subject, birthplace of grandparents, type of residence before migration, years of U.S. residence   
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, <20 y 0.71 (0.30-1.66) 0.26 (0.12-0.58) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, <20 y 0.83 (0.38-1.83) 0.30 (0.14-0.62) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, <20 y 0.83 (0.40-1.73) 0.27 (0.13-0.54) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, ≥20 y 1.13 (0.50-2.55) 0.51 (0.29-0.88) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, ≥20 y 0.91 (0.32-2.57) 0.35 (0.20-0.64) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, ≥20 y 1.43 (0.68-3.02) 0.37 (0.22-0.61) 
    Foreign, <4 foreign 1.29 (0.48-3.45) 0.53 (0.29-0.95) 
    United States, 4 foreign 0.71 (0.36-1.38) 0.66 (0.42-1.04) 
    United States, 1-2 United States 1.39 (0.67-2.89) 0.83 (0.48-1.44) 
    United States, 3-4 United States 1.0 1.0 
Language spoken now   
    English only 1.0 1.0 
    More English than Spanish 0.85 (0.50-1.44) 0.62 (0.37-1.03) 
    English and Spanish equally 0.95 (0.52-1.74) 0.49 (0.29-0.84) 
    More Spanish than English 0.67 (0.36-1.24) 0.36 (0.21-0.64) 
    Spanish only 0.44 (0.22-0.89) 0.37 (0.20-0.67) 
 Ptrend = 0.03 Ptrend < 0.01 
Birthplace, years in the United States, language spoken   
    U.S.-born, mostly English 1.0 1.0 
    U.S.-born, English and Spanish 1.13 (0.56-2.27) 0.83 (0.56-1.22) 
    U.S.-born, mostly Spanish 0.32 (0.05-1.99) 0.91 (0.45-1.84) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly English 2.08 (0.94-4.60) 0.84 (0.50-1.44) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, English and Spanish 1.59 (0.81-3.12) 0.58 (0.37-0.88) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly Spanish 1.00 (0.55-1.81) 0.56 (0.39-0.81) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly English 1.11 (0.32-3.80) 1.02 (0.13-8.20) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, English and Spanish 0.80 (0.33-1.92) 1.88 (0.18-19.39) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly Spanish 0.69 (0.40-1.18) 0.39 (0.25-0.61) 
Acculturation index   
    4 (highest) 1.0 1.0 
    3 1.20 (0.77-1.88) 0.68 (0.50-0.92) 
    2 0.68 (0.41-1.13) 0.45 (0.31-0.67) 
    1 (lowest) 0.49 (0.27-0.89) 0.48 (0.31-0.73) 
 Ptrend = 0.02 Ptrend < 0.01 
Premenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*Postmenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*
Type of residence before migration   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    Foreign-born 1.11 (0.74-1.64) 0.61 (0.47-0.80) 
        Urban 1.19 (0.77-1.83) 0.57 (0.42-0.78) 
        Mixed urban and rural 1.07 (0.62-1.85) 0.63 (0.43-0.91) 
        Rural 1.03 (0.60-1.76) 0.73 (0.50-1.08) 
Years of residence in the United States,,§   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    ≥40 1.42 (0.42-4.75) 0.70 (0.49-1.01) 
    30-39 1.70 (0.82-3.52) 0.64 (0.43-0.93) 
    20-29 1.25 (0.72-2.15) 0.43 (0.27-0.70) 
    10-19 0.92 (0.56-1.54) 0.41 (0.25-0.68) 
    <10 0.66 (0.34-1.28) 0.43 (0.23-0.77 
 Ptrend = 0.43 Ptrend < 0.01 
Age at migration to the United States,   
    U.S.-born 1.0 1.0 
    <10 1.70 (0.71-4.02) 0.75 (0.38-1.48) 
    10-19 1.26 (0.72-2.21) 0.78 (0.50-1.22) 
    20-29 1.07 (0.63-1.79) 0.53 (0.36-0.77) 
    30-39 0.79 (0.45-1.40) 0.51 (0.33-0.80) 
    ≥40 0.78 (0.30-2.06) 0.51 (0.33-0.78) 
 Ptrend = 0.47 Ptrend < 0.01 
Generation   
    Third 1.0 1.0 
    Second 0.83 (0.51-1.36) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 
    First 1.01 (0.64-1.59) 0.59 (0.42-0.83) 
 Ptrend = 0.97 Ptrend < 0.01 
Birthplace of subject, birthplace of grandparents, type of residence before migration, years of U.S. residence   
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, <20 y 0.71 (0.30-1.66) 0.26 (0.12-0.58) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, <20 y 0.83 (0.38-1.83) 0.30 (0.14-0.62) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, <20 y 0.83 (0.40-1.73) 0.27 (0.13-0.54) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, ≥20 y 1.13 (0.50-2.55) 0.51 (0.29-0.88) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, ≥20 y 0.91 (0.32-2.57) 0.35 (0.20-0.64) 
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, ≥20 y 1.43 (0.68-3.02) 0.37 (0.22-0.61) 
    Foreign, <4 foreign 1.29 (0.48-3.45) 0.53 (0.29-0.95) 
    United States, 4 foreign 0.71 (0.36-1.38) 0.66 (0.42-1.04) 
    United States, 1-2 United States 1.39 (0.67-2.89) 0.83 (0.48-1.44) 
    United States, 3-4 United States 1.0 1.0 
Language spoken now   
    English only 1.0 1.0 
    More English than Spanish 0.85 (0.50-1.44) 0.62 (0.37-1.03) 
    English and Spanish equally 0.95 (0.52-1.74) 0.49 (0.29-0.84) 
    More Spanish than English 0.67 (0.36-1.24) 0.36 (0.21-0.64) 
    Spanish only 0.44 (0.22-0.89) 0.37 (0.20-0.67) 
 Ptrend = 0.03 Ptrend < 0.01 
Birthplace, years in the United States, language spoken   
    U.S.-born, mostly English 1.0 1.0 
    U.S.-born, English and Spanish 1.13 (0.56-2.27) 0.83 (0.56-1.22) 
    U.S.-born, mostly Spanish 0.32 (0.05-1.99) 0.91 (0.45-1.84) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly English 2.08 (0.94-4.60) 0.84 (0.50-1.44) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, English and Spanish 1.59 (0.81-3.12) 0.58 (0.37-0.88) 
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly Spanish 1.00 (0.55-1.81) 0.56 (0.39-0.81) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly English 1.11 (0.32-3.80) 1.02 (0.13-8.20) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, English and Spanish 0.80 (0.33-1.92) 1.88 (0.18-19.39) 
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly Spanish 0.69 (0.40-1.18) 0.39 (0.25-0.61) 
Acculturation index   
    4 (highest) 1.0 1.0 
    3 1.20 (0.77-1.88) 0.68 (0.50-0.92) 
    2 0.68 (0.41-1.13) 0.45 (0.31-0.67) 
    1 (lowest) 0.49 (0.27-0.89) 0.48 (0.31-0.73) 
 Ptrend = 0.02 Ptrend < 0.01 
*

Adjusted for age, education, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, age at menarche, number of full-term pregnancies, breast-feeding, use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, height, BMI, lifetime physical activity, alcohol consumption, caloric intake, energy-adjusted fat intake, and energy-adjusted fiber intake.

Includes women born in the United States or other Western countries.

Excludes women with two or more moves between United States and foreign countries.

§

Includes time spent in United States and other Western countries.

Excludes women with multiple moves between United States and foreign countries.

Categorized according to the approximate quartile distribution among premenopausal and postmenopausal controls combined.

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