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Table 5.

Age-standardized mean values of breast cancer risk factors among controls, by acculturation index and menopausal status

Premenopausal controls
Postmenopausal controls
Q1Q2Q3Q4P*Q1Q2Q3Q4P*
Education (y) 5.4 8.7 12.9 13.4 <0.01 4.0 7.8 10.8 12.4 <0.01 
Family history of breast cancer (%) 3.7 2.3 4.8 11.5 <0.01 4.3 6.0 12.9 15.1 <0.01 
History of benign breast disease (%) 3.0 9.4 3.6 9.2 0.19 6.3 13.7 17.1 24.5 <0.01 
Age at menarche 13.2 12.9 12.8 12.2 <0.01 13.2 13.2 12.7 12.4 <0.01 
No. full-term pregnancies 3.9 3.2 2.2 2.4 <0.01 6.1 3.7 3.4 3.2 <0.01 
Age at first full-term pregnancy 22.0 22.4 24.3 24.0 <0.01 22.3 22.9 24.0 22.8 0.05 
Lifetime breast-feeding (mo) 27.9 20.6 11.4 7.6 <0.01 37.9 19.6 9.8 6.1 <0.01 
Postmenopausal (%)           
    Natural menopause      83.6 68.7 54.8 53.6 <0.01 
    Surgical menopause      5.8 17.0 22.1 29.2 <0.01 
    Unknown      10.6 14.3 23.0 17.2 0.02 
Age at natural menopause (y)      47.6 47.3 48.4 48.8 0.03 
Use of hormone therapy (%)      32.9 54.4 63.1 68.8 <0.01 
BMI (kg/m229.9 29.4 28.7 29.1 0.16 30.5 29.5 29.2 30.1 0.45 
Adult height (cm) 155.3 155.6 156.2 159.5 <0.01 152.8 154.2 155.1 156.9 <0.01 
Lifetime physical activity (h/wk) 22.8 20.1 19.5 14.7 <0.01 21.9 19.6 17.5 17.9 <0.01 
Alcohol consumption (g/d)§ 1.3 1.5 1.8 5.9 <0.01 0.4 1.0 3.1 3.4 <0.01 
Caloric intake (kcal/d)§ 2,670 2,351 2,116 2,231 <0.01 2,075 2,275 1,998 1,976 0.03 
Fat intake (g/d)§ 80.2 72.1 68.2 84.8 0.46 61.2 69.3 64.7 73.6 <0.01 
Fiber intake (g/d)§ 38.8 31.8 24.8 20.4 <0.01 31.5 31.7 25.8 21.1 <0.01 
Premenopausal controls
Postmenopausal controls
Q1Q2Q3Q4P*Q1Q2Q3Q4P*
Education (y) 5.4 8.7 12.9 13.4 <0.01 4.0 7.8 10.8 12.4 <0.01 
Family history of breast cancer (%) 3.7 2.3 4.8 11.5 <0.01 4.3 6.0 12.9 15.1 <0.01 
History of benign breast disease (%) 3.0 9.4 3.6 9.2 0.19 6.3 13.7 17.1 24.5 <0.01 
Age at menarche 13.2 12.9 12.8 12.2 <0.01 13.2 13.2 12.7 12.4 <0.01 
No. full-term pregnancies 3.9 3.2 2.2 2.4 <0.01 6.1 3.7 3.4 3.2 <0.01 
Age at first full-term pregnancy 22.0 22.4 24.3 24.0 <0.01 22.3 22.9 24.0 22.8 0.05 
Lifetime breast-feeding (mo) 27.9 20.6 11.4 7.6 <0.01 37.9 19.6 9.8 6.1 <0.01 
Postmenopausal (%)           
    Natural menopause      83.6 68.7 54.8 53.6 <0.01 
    Surgical menopause      5.8 17.0 22.1 29.2 <0.01 
    Unknown      10.6 14.3 23.0 17.2 0.02 
Age at natural menopause (y)      47.6 47.3 48.4 48.8 0.03 
Use of hormone therapy (%)      32.9 54.4 63.1 68.8 <0.01 
BMI (kg/m229.9 29.4 28.7 29.1 0.16 30.5 29.5 29.2 30.1 0.45 
Adult height (cm) 155.3 155.6 156.2 159.5 <0.01 152.8 154.2 155.1 156.9 <0.01 
Lifetime physical activity (h/wk) 22.8 20.1 19.5 14.7 <0.01 21.9 19.6 17.5 17.9 <0.01 
Alcohol consumption (g/d)§ 1.3 1.5 1.8 5.9 <0.01 0.4 1.0 3.1 3.4 <0.01 
Caloric intake (kcal/d)§ 2,670 2,351 2,116 2,231 <0.01 2,075 2,275 1,998 1,976 0.03 
Fat intake (g/d)§ 80.2 72.1 68.2 84.8 0.46 61.2 69.3 64.7 73.6 <0.01 
Fiber intake (g/d)§ 38.8 31.8 24.8 20.4 <0.01 31.5 31.7 25.8 21.1 <0.01 

NOTE: Acculturation index is age standardized to 10-year age distribution of the combined control population.

*

P for test of linear trend.

Bilateral oophorectomy (with or without hysterectomy) or hysterectomy with one-sided oophorectomy.

Women ages ≥55 years who either began using hormone therapy before the cessation of menses or had a hysterectomy without oophorectomy.

§

During the reference year.

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