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Table 4.

Urine and serum levels of phytoestrogens among women grouped according to tertiles of dietary intakes (n = 284–333)

Tertiles of dietary intakeUrinary levels (μg/mmol creatinine)
Serum levels (ng/ml)
Geometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trendGeometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trend
Daidzein Daidzein <0.001 <0.001 Daidzein 0.054 0.016 
    1st tertile 11.5 (3.4)   1.6 (3.3)   
    2nd tertile 16.1 (3.2)   2.0 (3.4)   
    3rd tertile 22.4 (3.3)   2.5 (3.4)   
Genistein Genistein <0.001 <0.001 Genistein 0.001 <0.001 
    1st tertile 6.5 (2.8)   5.0 (2.3)   
    2nd tertile 7.9 (2.8)   5.5 (2.2)   
    3rd tertile 12.8 (2.9)   7.7 (2.4)   
Fiber Lignans <0.001 <0.001 Lignans 0.003 0.001 
    1st tertile 66.9 (2.8)   3.5 (2.7)   
    2nd tertile 87.0 (3.3)   4.2 (3.2)   
    3rd tertile 140.2 (3.3)   6.0 (3.1)   
Tertiles of dietary intakeUrinary levels (μg/mmol creatinine)
Serum levels (ng/ml)
Geometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trendGeometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trend
Daidzein Daidzein <0.001 <0.001 Daidzein 0.054 0.016 
    1st tertile 11.5 (3.4)   1.6 (3.3)   
    2nd tertile 16.1 (3.2)   2.0 (3.4)   
    3rd tertile 22.4 (3.3)   2.5 (3.4)   
Genistein Genistein <0.001 <0.001 Genistein 0.001 <0.001 
    1st tertile 6.5 (2.8)   5.0 (2.3)   
    2nd tertile 7.9 (2.8)   5.5 (2.2)   
    3rd tertile 12.8 (2.9)   7.7 (2.4)   
Fiber Lignans <0.001 <0.001 Lignans 0.003 0.001 
    1st tertile 66.9 (2.8)   3.5 (2.7)   
    2nd tertile 87.0 (3.3)   4.2 (3.2)   
    3rd tertile 140.2 (3.3)   6.0 (3.1)   
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