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Table 1.

Dietary intake of fiber and dietary intake, urinary excretion (adjusted for creatinine concentration), and serum levels of phytoestrogens

Geometric mean ± SDRange*,Percentile
25th50th75th
Dietary intake (μg/day), n = 331      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 193.8 ± 2.4 0.4–6312.2 131.2 205.5 290.7 
        Genistein 243.4 ± 2.2 3.5–7675.4 167.4 247.2 350.8 
    Fiber (g/day) 13.3 ± 1.4 3.3–43.8 10.6 13.7 16.9 
Urinary excretion (μg/mmol creatinine), n = 333      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 16.0 ± 3.3 ND to 833.0 7.7 17.2 37.3 
        Genistein 8.6 ± 2.9 ND to 489.9 3.8 7.9 19.3 
        Glycitein 2.9 ± 2.4 ND to 56.0 0.8 2.5 6.3 
        O-DMA 0.8 ± 2.3 ND to 226.3 0.0 0.2 1.3 
        Equol 0.5 ± 2.1 ND to 119.7 0.0 0.1 0.7 
    Lignans      
        Enterodiol 7.8 ± 2.6 ND to 438.5 3.5 7.8 16.1 
        Enterolactone 78.5 ± 3.7 ND to 9790.9 40.4 93.5 193.3 
Serum levels (ng/ml), n = 284      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 2.0 ± 3.4 0.1–44.8 1.0 2.2 4.5 
        Genistein 4.1 ± 2.7 ND to 159.7 1.3 3.5 8.5 
        Glycitein 0.1 ± 1.2 ND to 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 
        O-DMA 0.1 ± 1.5 ND to 31.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 
        Equol 0.2 ± 1.3 ND to 8.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 
    Lignans      
        Enterodiol 0.4 ± 1.4 ND to 8.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 
        Enterolactone 3.8 ± 3.6 ND to 388.1 2.3 4.5 8.7 
Geometric mean ± SDRange*,Percentile
25th50th75th
Dietary intake (μg/day), n = 331      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 193.8 ± 2.4 0.4–6312.2 131.2 205.5 290.7 
        Genistein 243.4 ± 2.2 3.5–7675.4 167.4 247.2 350.8 
    Fiber (g/day) 13.3 ± 1.4 3.3–43.8 10.6 13.7 16.9 
Urinary excretion (μg/mmol creatinine), n = 333      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 16.0 ± 3.3 ND to 833.0 7.7 17.2 37.3 
        Genistein 8.6 ± 2.9 ND to 489.9 3.8 7.9 19.3 
        Glycitein 2.9 ± 2.4 ND to 56.0 0.8 2.5 6.3 
        O-DMA 0.8 ± 2.3 ND to 226.3 0.0 0.2 1.3 
        Equol 0.5 ± 2.1 ND to 119.7 0.0 0.1 0.7 
    Lignans      
        Enterodiol 7.8 ± 2.6 ND to 438.5 3.5 7.8 16.1 
        Enterolactone 78.5 ± 3.7 ND to 9790.9 40.4 93.5 193.3 
Serum levels (ng/ml), n = 284      
    Isoflavones      
        Daidzein 2.0 ± 3.4 0.1–44.8 1.0 2.2 4.5 
        Genistein 4.1 ± 2.7 ND to 159.7 1.3 3.5 8.5 
        Glycitein 0.1 ± 1.2 ND to 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 
        O-DMA 0.1 ± 1.5 ND to 31.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 
        Equol 0.2 ± 1.3 ND to 8.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 
    Lignans      
        Enterodiol 0.4 ± 1.4 ND to 8.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 
        Enterolactone 3.8 ± 3.6 ND to 388.1 2.3 4.5 8.7 

*ND indicates that the analyte was not detected (i.e., zero value or value below the limit of detection of the assay). Limits of detection (ng/ml) for urine analyses by GC/MS after correction for dilution of sample were as follows: daidzein 1.9, genistein 1.9, glycitein 6.5, O-DMA 7.5, equol 1.9, enterodiol 1.8, and enterolactone 8.0. Limits of detection (ng/ml) for serum analyses by LC/MS after correction for concentration of sample were as follows: daidzein 0.04, genistein 0.06, glycitein 0.06, O-DMA 0.06, equol 0.11, enterodiol 0.08, and enterolactone 0.05.

Based on untransformed data.

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