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Table 5

Joint effects of cumulative exposure to maté, alcohol, and tobacco smoking on esophageal cancer riska

Lifetime consumption of matébLifetime drinking of alcoholcLifetime tobacco smokingdNo. of cases/controlsOR (95% CI)
Low Low Low 43/148 1.00 (reference) 
Low Low High 32/67 2.36 (1.23–4.53) 
Low High Low 8/14 2.54 (0.93–6.95) 
Low High High 45/47 4.06 (2.07–7.96) 
High Low Low 38/68 1.52 (0.88–2.62) 
High Low High 51/62 3.12 (1.69–5.78) 
High High Low 7/6 3.40 (1.00–11.59) 
High High High 89/46 7.10 (3.75–13.46) 
Lifetime consumption of matébLifetime drinking of alcoholcLifetime tobacco smokingdNo. of cases/controlsOR (95% CI)
Low Low Low 43/148 1.00 (reference) 
Low Low High 32/67 2.36 (1.23–4.53) 
Low High Low 8/14 2.54 (0.93–6.95) 
Low High High 45/47 4.06 (2.07–7.96) 
High Low Low 38/68 1.52 (0.88–2.62) 
High Low High 51/62 3.12 (1.69–5.78) 
High High Low 7/6 3.40 (1.00–11.59) 
High High High 89/46 7.10 (3.75–13.46) 
a

ORs adjusted for design variables age, sex, urban/rural status, and years of education. P for the interaction between lifetime exposures to maté, alcohol, and tobacco smoking = 0.96.

b

Lifetime consumption of maté (liter-years): low, 0–16000; high, ≥16001.

c

Lifetime consumption of alcohol (liter-years): low, 0–832; high, ≥833.

d

Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoking (pack-years): low, 0–5840; high, ≥5841.

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