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Table 4.

Age at menarche and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone receptor expression

First author (reference)Country (study)Cases (n)Age at menarche (y)
Risk estimate (95% CI)*
Reference groupAge category
     ER+ ER− 
Kreiger (35) Canada (ON) 528 <12 12-14 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 
    15+ 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.7 (0.3-1.5) 
Zhu (27) United States (TN) 281 <13 13+ 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 
Cooper (36) Australia 380 <13 13 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 0.9 (0.6-1.7) 
    14+ 1.0 (0.6-2.1) 0.8 (0.4-1.4) 
Hislop (37) Canada (BC) 512 <13 13 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 
    14+ 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 
McTiernan (39) United States (CASH-WA) 240 <13 13+ 1.3 (0.8-1.9) 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 1.0 (0.9-1.2) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 
     PR+ PR− 
Kreiger (35) Canada (ON) 528 <12 12-14 0.7 (0.5-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 
    15+ 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.7 (0.4-1.4) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 
     ER+/PR+ ER−/PR− 
Cotterchio (24) Canada (ON) 3,276 <12 Premenopause   
    12 0.6 (0.4-0.9) 1.1 (0.6-1.9) 
    13 0.5 (0.3-0.8) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 
    14+ 0.5 (0.3-0.8) 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 
    Postmenopause   
    12 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.5) 
    13 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 
    14+ 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 
Huang (32) United States (CBCS) 783 <12 12+ 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 0.9 (0.7-1.4) 
McCredie (23) Melbourne (Australia) 618 <13 13+ 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 
Britton (29) United States (WISH) 1,212 <13 13+ 0.8 (0.6-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 
Potter (17) United States (IWHS) 610 <13 13+ 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 
First author (reference)Country (study)Cases (n)Age at menarche (y)
Risk estimate (95% CI)*
Reference groupAge category
     ER+ ER− 
Kreiger (35) Canada (ON) 528 <12 12-14 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 
    15+ 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.7 (0.3-1.5) 
Zhu (27) United States (TN) 281 <13 13+ 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 
Cooper (36) Australia 380 <13 13 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 0.9 (0.6-1.7) 
    14+ 1.0 (0.6-2.1) 0.8 (0.4-1.4) 
Hislop (37) Canada (BC) 512 <13 13 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 
    14+ 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 
McTiernan (39) United States (CASH-WA) 240 <13 13+ 1.3 (0.8-1.9) 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 1.0 (0.9-1.2) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 
     PR+ PR− 
Kreiger (35) Canada (ON) 528 <12 12-14 0.7 (0.5-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 
    15+ 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.7 (0.4-1.4) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 
     ER+/PR+ ER−/PR− 
Cotterchio (24) Canada (ON) 3,276 <12 Premenopause   
    12 0.6 (0.4-0.9) 1.1 (0.6-1.9) 
    13 0.5 (0.3-0.8) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 
    14+ 0.5 (0.3-0.8) 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 
    Postmenopause   
    12 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.5) 
    13 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 
    14+ 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 
Huang (32) United States (CBCS) 783 <12 12+ 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 0.9 (0.7-1.4) 
McCredie (23) Melbourne (Australia) 618 <13 13+ 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 
Britton (29) United States (WISH) 1,212 <13 13+ 0.8 (0.6-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 
Potter (17) United States (IWHS) 610 <13 13+ 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 
Yoo (41) Japan 455 Per 2 y older Continuous 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 

NOTE: Table excludes Morabia et al. (33), who found that an older age at menarche similarly reduced the risk of both ER+ and ER− breast cancers; however, ORs were not presented in the article.

*

ORs were the reported risk estimates for case-control studies and RRs for cohort designs.

Among African American women.

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