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Table 2

Relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs for prostate cancer and total fish consumption assessed in 1986, 1990, and 1994 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–1998)

Cancer statusTotal fish consumptiona
<2/mo2/mo to 1/week2–3/week>3/week
All prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 320/73,601 487/99,162 1,181/232,606 494/110,076 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 1.06 (0.93–1.20) 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 
Advanced prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 83/74,501 119/100,692 303/236,343 112/111,671 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 1.06 (0.80–1.40) 1.12 (0.88–1.43) 0.83 (0.60–1.06) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 1.05 (0.79–1.39) 1.14 (0.88–1.46) 0.83 (0.61–1.13) 
Metastatic prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 50/74,640 47/101,081 130/237,189 51/111,993 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 0.84 (0.60–1.16) 0.59 (0.40–0.88) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 0.71 (0.48–1.06) 0.82 (0.58–1.16) 0.56 (0.37–0.86) 
Cancer statusTotal fish consumptiona
<2/mo2/mo to 1/week2–3/week>3/week
All prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 320/73,601 487/99,162 1,181/232,606 494/110,076 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 1.06 (0.93–1.20) 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 
Advanced prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 83/74,501 119/100,692 303/236,343 112/111,671 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 1.06 (0.80–1.40) 1.12 (0.88–1.43) 0.83 (0.60–1.06) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 1.05 (0.79–1.39) 1.14 (0.88–1.46) 0.83 (0.61–1.13) 
Metastatic prostate cancer     
 Case/person-time 50/74,640 47/101,081 130/237,189 51/111,993 
 Age-adjusted RR 1.00 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 0.84 (0.60–1.16) 0.59 (0.40–0.88) 
 Multivariate RRb 1.00 0.71 (0.48–1.06) 0.82 (0.58–1.16) 0.56 (0.37–0.86) 
a

Total fish consumption comprises canned tuna, dark meat fish (mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish) and other, unspecified fish dishes.

b

Adjusted for age, calories, and fatty acids [saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, linoleic acid (18:2), α-linolenic acid (18:3), and trans-fatty acids], lycopene, retinol, vitamin D, and physical activity.

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