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Table 1

Characteristics of the cohort studies included in the pooled analysis of dietary energy-adjusted carotenoids and lung cancer

StudyFollow-up periodBaseline cohort sizeNumber of casesMean (sd) μg/day
α-caroteneβ-caroteneβ-cryptoxanthinLutein/ZeaxanthinLycopene
α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study         
 Men 1985–1996 6771a 298 527 (505) 1758 (1262) 25 (30) 1146 (328) 645 (597) 
Canadian National Breast Screening Study         
 Women 1980–1993 56837 149 986 (818) 4619 (2939) 79 (58) 3037 (3096) 8891 (8933) 
Health Professionals Follow-up Study         
 Men 1986–1996 44350 244 980 (1036) 5159 (3591) 88 (103) 3949 (3013) 10844 (7795) 
Iowa Women’s Health Study         
 Women 1986–1996 33828 433 773 (820) 4527 (3147) 74 (71) 2795 (2832) 4180 (4267) 
Netherlands Cohort Study         
 Women  62412 131 685 (565) 2901 (1501) 206 (172) 2448 (1028) 1303 (1883) 
 Men 1986–1992 58279 843 687 (527) 2960 (1453) 155 (164) 2550 (1120) 1045 (1544) 
New York State Cohort         
 Women  21045 130 1144 (854) 6346 (3384) 247 (264) 5998 (3790) 5683 (4100) 
 Men 1980–1987 27936 392 1171 (865) 6382 (3458) 215 (273) 6025 (3489) 7274 (4764) 
Nurses’ Health Study (a)         
 Women 1980–1986 88307 156 723 (838) 4424 (3629) 104 (92) 5086 (5289) 5255 (5305) 
Nurses’ Health Study (b)         
 Women 1986–1996 68307b 379 764 (637) 4273 (2403) 62 (62) 3531 (2553) 9643 (6133) 
Total number  399765 3155      
StudyFollow-up periodBaseline cohort sizeNumber of casesMean (sd) μg/day
α-caroteneβ-caroteneβ-cryptoxanthinLutein/ZeaxanthinLycopene
α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study         
 Men 1985–1996 6771a 298 527 (505) 1758 (1262) 25 (30) 1146 (328) 645 (597) 
Canadian National Breast Screening Study         
 Women 1980–1993 56837 149 986 (818) 4619 (2939) 79 (58) 3037 (3096) 8891 (8933) 
Health Professionals Follow-up Study         
 Men 1986–1996 44350 244 980 (1036) 5159 (3591) 88 (103) 3949 (3013) 10844 (7795) 
Iowa Women’s Health Study         
 Women 1986–1996 33828 433 773 (820) 4527 (3147) 74 (71) 2795 (2832) 4180 (4267) 
Netherlands Cohort Study         
 Women  62412 131 685 (565) 2901 (1501) 206 (172) 2448 (1028) 1303 (1883) 
 Men 1986–1992 58279 843 687 (527) 2960 (1453) 155 (164) 2550 (1120) 1045 (1544) 
New York State Cohort         
 Women  21045 130 1144 (854) 6346 (3384) 247 (264) 5998 (3790) 5683 (4100) 
 Men 1980–1987 27936 392 1171 (865) 6382 (3458) 215 (273) 6025 (3489) 7274 (4764) 
Nurses’ Health Study (a)         
 Women 1980–1986 88307 156 723 (838) 4424 (3629) 104 (92) 5086 (5289) 5255 (5305) 
Nurses’ Health Study (b)         
 Women 1986–1996 68307b 379 764 (637) 4273 (2403) 62 (62) 3531 (2553) 9643 (6133) 
Total number  399765 3155      
a

Only the placebo group of the α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study is included in the lung cancer analyses.

b

These participants were also included in the Nurses’ Health Study (a).

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