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Table 2.

Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol and three metabolites in the plasma of volunteers after a single oral dose

VariableDose level (g)
0.51.02.55.0
Resveratrol     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 223.7* 544.8 (57.2) 786.5 (36.2) 1,319 (59.1) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 72.6 (48.9) 117.0 (73.1) 268.0 (55.3) 538.8 (72.5) 
    Tmax (h) 0.833 (0.5-1.5) 0.759 (0.5-4.0) 1.375 (0.5-4.0) 1.500 (0.67-5.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 8.36 (57.8) 18.04 (51.6) 32.25 (43.0) 51.90 (80.7) 
    Half-life (h) 2.85* 8.87 (91.1) 4.22 (51.6) 8.52 (95.8) 
    CL/F (L/h) 2,235* 2,593 (65.1) 3,471 (29.9) 4,930 (50.0) 
    CLR (L/h) 1.177 (102.5) 0.696 (71.5) 0.656 (53.1) 1.443 (139.2) 
    V/F (liters) 9,198* 19,298 (54.3) 22,226 (67.3) 66,991 (112) 
Glucuronide 1     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 1,919 (33.6) 3,059 (60.9) 5,664 (27.7) 9,923 (40.9) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 404.6 (35.3) 473.6 (76.8) 874.4 (37.5) 1,285 (55.4) 
    Tmax (h) 2.00 (1.0-6.0) 2.250 (1.0-6.0) 2.375 (1.0-8.0) 2.00 (1.5-5.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 76.9 (37.2) 110.3 (56.1) 215.5 (43.5) 344.1 (51.5) 
    Half-life (h) 2.85 (48.6) 7.27 (93.9) 10.6 (92.9) 7.90 (39.1) 
    CL/F (L/h) 282.7 (27.3) 493.5 (74.7) 469.5 (25.7) 590.6 (45.2) 
Glucuronide 2     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 1,287 (21.7) 2,589 (66.4) 4,320 (32.9) 8,546 (62.3) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 369.5 (39.6) 672.6 (81.1) 1,626 (71.5) 1,735 (66.4) 
    Tmax (h) 1.500 (1.0-5.0) 1.750 (1.0-5.1) 2.000 (1.0-6.0) 2.520 (1.5-8.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 51.0 (27.6) 99.9 (66.2) 193.8 (39.3) 317.8 (65.6) 
    Half-life (h) 3.09 (69.8) 6.64 (92.1) 8.42 (88.9) 5.83 (51.2) 
    CL/F (L/h) 408.8 (26.7) 642.5 (83.0) 636.9 (32.6) 1,017 (94.6) 
3-Sulfate     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 4,049 (26.6) 10,053 (73.2) 16,984 (41.7) 30,898 (46.1) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 1,135 (25.7) 2,102 (81.3) 2,786 (27.2) 4,294 (48.0) 
    Tmax (h) 1.500 (1.0-5.0) 2.000 (1.0-5.0) 2.000 (1.0-5.2) 2.050 (1.0-6.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 172.0 (23.2) 402.6 (70.5) 597.0 (27.0) 1,089 (49.4) 
    Half-life (h) 3.21 (56.6) 4.51 (82.8) 11.5 (95.5) 7.71 (42.3) 
    CL/F (L/h) 131.2 (25.8) 151.8 (62.7) 171.2 (40.0) 207.8 (63.9) 
VariableDose level (g)
0.51.02.55.0
Resveratrol     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 223.7* 544.8 (57.2) 786.5 (36.2) 1,319 (59.1) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 72.6 (48.9) 117.0 (73.1) 268.0 (55.3) 538.8 (72.5) 
    Tmax (h) 0.833 (0.5-1.5) 0.759 (0.5-4.0) 1.375 (0.5-4.0) 1.500 (0.67-5.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 8.36 (57.8) 18.04 (51.6) 32.25 (43.0) 51.90 (80.7) 
    Half-life (h) 2.85* 8.87 (91.1) 4.22 (51.6) 8.52 (95.8) 
    CL/F (L/h) 2,235* 2,593 (65.1) 3,471 (29.9) 4,930 (50.0) 
    CLR (L/h) 1.177 (102.5) 0.696 (71.5) 0.656 (53.1) 1.443 (139.2) 
    V/F (liters) 9,198* 19,298 (54.3) 22,226 (67.3) 66,991 (112) 
Glucuronide 1     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 1,919 (33.6) 3,059 (60.9) 5,664 (27.7) 9,923 (40.9) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 404.6 (35.3) 473.6 (76.8) 874.4 (37.5) 1,285 (55.4) 
    Tmax (h) 2.00 (1.0-6.0) 2.250 (1.0-6.0) 2.375 (1.0-8.0) 2.00 (1.5-5.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 76.9 (37.2) 110.3 (56.1) 215.5 (43.5) 344.1 (51.5) 
    Half-life (h) 2.85 (48.6) 7.27 (93.9) 10.6 (92.9) 7.90 (39.1) 
    CL/F (L/h) 282.7 (27.3) 493.5 (74.7) 469.5 (25.7) 590.6 (45.2) 
Glucuronide 2     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 1,287 (21.7) 2,589 (66.4) 4,320 (32.9) 8,546 (62.3) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 369.5 (39.6) 672.6 (81.1) 1,626 (71.5) 1,735 (66.4) 
    Tmax (h) 1.500 (1.0-5.0) 1.750 (1.0-5.1) 2.000 (1.0-6.0) 2.520 (1.5-8.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 51.0 (27.6) 99.9 (66.2) 193.8 (39.3) 317.8 (65.6) 
    Half-life (h) 3.09 (69.8) 6.64 (92.1) 8.42 (88.9) 5.83 (51.2) 
    CL/F (L/h) 408.8 (26.7) 642.5 (83.0) 636.9 (32.6) 1,017 (94.6) 
3-Sulfate     
    AUCinf (ng h/mL) 4,049 (26.6) 10,053 (73.2) 16,984 (41.7) 30,898 (46.1) 
    Cmax (ng/mL) 1,135 (25.7) 2,102 (81.3) 2,786 (27.2) 4,294 (48.0) 
    Tmax (h) 1.500 (1.0-5.0) 2.000 (1.0-5.0) 2.000 (1.0-5.2) 2.050 (1.0-6.0) 
    Cav (ng/mL) 172.0 (23.2) 402.6 (70.5) 597.0 (27.0) 1,089 (49.4) 
    Half-life (h) 3.21 (56.6) 4.51 (82.8) 11.5 (95.5) 7.71 (42.3) 
    CL/F (L/h) 131.2 (25.8) 151.8 (62.7) 171.2 (40.0) 207.8 (63.9) 

NOTE: Values are the mean of n = 10 with coefficient of variation (in percent) or range in brackets.

Abbreviations: AUCinf, area under the concentration versus time curve to time infinity; Cmax, maximal plasma concentration; Tmax, median time of maximal plasma concentration; Cav, average plasma concentration; CL/F, apparent total body clearance (calculated as dose/AUCinf); CLR, apparent renal clearance approximated by amount excreted with urine within 24 h over AUC0-24; V/F, apparent volume of distribution.

*

n = 1, value for AUCinf at the lowest dose could be established in only one participant.

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