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Table 2.

Studies that assessed raw vegetable intake and risk of cancer

Author countryCancer siteOR (95% CI)VegetableComparison of quantity intakeTypes of raw/cooked vegetablesNo. subjects
Takezaki et al. (11) Japan Oral-male 0.5 (0.4–0.7) Raw ≥3 vs <3 times/wk  189 cases, 9,858 controls 
 Oral-female 0.8 (0.5–1.3)    77 cases, 9,858 controls 
Rajkumar et al. (12) India Oral 0.47 (0.31–0.73) Raw ≥3 vs <1 serving/wk  591 controls, 582 cases 
  0.44 (0.28–0.69) Total ≥14 vs <7 servings/wk   
Brown et al. (13) Puerto Rico* Oral and pharyngeal −FH: 0.5 (0.3–1.0) Raw Frequent vs infrequent  59 cases, 28 controls 
  +FH: 0.15 (0.04–0.5)    155 cases, 194 controls 
Sanchez et al. (14) Spain Oral and pharyngeal 0.53 (0.35–0.80) Raw ≥7 vs ≤2 servings/wk  375 cases, 375 controls 
  0.54 (0.34–0.87) Total ≥8 vs ≤3 servings/wk   
De Stefani et al. (15) Uruguay Oral and pharyngeal 0.9 (0.5–1.5) Raw  Carrot, lettuce, tomato 33 cases, 393 controls 
  0.8 (0.4–1.4) Total  Carrot, lettuce, tomato, onion, Swiss chard, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, winter squash, red pepper  
 Laryngeal 0.7 (0.4–1.1) Raw   34 cases, 393 controls 
  0.9 (0.6–1.6) Total    
 Esophageal 0.5 (0.4–0.8) Raw   66 cases, 393 controls 
  0.7 (0.5–0.9) Total    
Uzcudun et al. (16) Spain Pharyngeal 0.33 (0.11–0.63) Raw 3–4 days/wk vs 1–3 days/mo  232 cases, 232 controls 
Takezaki et al. (17) Japan Hypopharyngeal-male 0.2 (0.1–0.4) Raw Everyday vs occasionally or less  62 cases, 11,936 controls 
 Esophageal-male 0.6 (0.4–0.7)    284 cases, 11,936 controls 
Brown et al. (21) United States Esophageal-adenocarcinoma-male 0.4 Raw   162 cases, 685 controls 
  0.6§ Total  Green string beans or lima beans, red beets, broccoli, cooked cabbage, coleslaw, carrot, cauliflower, southern greens (collard and mustard greens or kale), okra, green peas, black-eyed peas or cow peas, etc.  
Brown et al. (22) United States Esophageal-male-White 0.4 Raw  Coleslaw, tomato, tossed salad 114 cases, 681 controls 
  0.4 Total  Same as Brown et al. (21)  
 Esophageal-male-Black 0.4 Raw   219 cases, 557 controls 
  1.0 Total    
Gao et al. (23) China Esophageal 0.07 (0.03–0.19) Raw Frequently vs almost never  81 cases, 234 controls 
 Gastric 0.07 (0.04–0.13)    153 cases, 234 controls 
Takezaki et al. (24) China Esophageal 0.30 (0.15–0.61) Raw Frequently vs almost never  199 cases, 333 controls 
  0.81 (0.46–1.44) Total Everyday vs <1 time/wk   
 Gastric 0.63 (0.29–1.38) Raw Frequently vs almost never  187 cases, 333 controls 
  0.50 (0.29–0.87) Total Everyday vs <1 time/wk   
Harrison et al. (30) United States Gastric-intestinal type 0.6 (0.4–1.1) Raw   60 cases, 132 controls 
  0.8 (0.5–1.3) Total    
 Gastric-diffuse type 0.6 (0.3–1.2) Raw   31 cases, 132 controls 
  0.7 (0.4–1.2) Total    
Galanis et al. (31) Hawaii (Japanese residents) Gastric 0.8 (0.5–1.2) Raw ≥7 vs ≤6 times/wk  108 cases, 11,907 cohort 
Huang et al. (32) Japan Gastric 0.80 (0.67–0.95) Raw Every day vs <3 times/wk  887 cases, 28,619 controls 
Ito et al. (33) Japan Gastric-female 0.50 (0.36–0.71) Raw Everyday vs almost never  508 cases, 36,490 controls 
Lee et al. (34) Korea Early gastric 0.2 (0.1–0.5) Raw >6 vs <4 servings/wk Head lettuce, lettuce, cabbage, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, pepper, carrot, onion, Perilla leaves 69 cases, 199 controls 
Ghadirian et al. (35) Canada (Francophone community) Pancreatic 0.28 (0.10–0.75) Raw Very often vs never  179 cases, 239 controls 
Takezaki et al. (47) Japan Lung-adenocarcinoma-male 1.01 (0.62–1.65) Raw Everyday vs almost never  748 male cases, 2,964 male controls, 297 female cases, 1,189 female controls 
 Lung-adenocarcinoma-female 0.84 (0.45–1.55)     
 Lung-squamous and small cell-male 0.8 (0.51–1.25)     
 Lung-squamous and small cell-female 1.01 (0.28–3.58)     
Wright et al. (48) Missouri Lung-female 0.74 (0.62–0.88) Raw  Tomato, spinach, coleslaw, green salad, carrot, carrot juice, olives, cucumber, jalapeno pepper, celery, red/green pepper, avocado, pickles 587 cases, 624 controls 
  0.67 (0.55–0.82) Total  Raw vegetables (above), string beans (green or yellow snap) peas, black-eyed peas, corn, cabbage/sauerkraut, winter squash, salsa/red chili sauce, broccoli/cauliflower/Brussels sprouts, etc.  
Le Marchand et al. (5) Hawaii Prostate 1.1 (0.7–1.7) Raw ≥302 vs ≤82 g/wk  198 cohort 
Appleby et al. (6) United Kingdom All malignant neoplasms 1.03 (0.83–1.23) Raw Daily vs less than daily “Raw salad” 181 cases, 10,771 cohort 
Author countryCancer siteOR (95% CI)VegetableComparison of quantity intakeTypes of raw/cooked vegetablesNo. subjects
Takezaki et al. (11) Japan Oral-male 0.5 (0.4–0.7) Raw ≥3 vs <3 times/wk  189 cases, 9,858 controls 
 Oral-female 0.8 (0.5–1.3)    77 cases, 9,858 controls 
Rajkumar et al. (12) India Oral 0.47 (0.31–0.73) Raw ≥3 vs <1 serving/wk  591 controls, 582 cases 
  0.44 (0.28–0.69) Total ≥14 vs <7 servings/wk   
Brown et al. (13) Puerto Rico* Oral and pharyngeal −FH: 0.5 (0.3–1.0) Raw Frequent vs infrequent  59 cases, 28 controls 
  +FH: 0.15 (0.04–0.5)    155 cases, 194 controls 
Sanchez et al. (14) Spain Oral and pharyngeal 0.53 (0.35–0.80) Raw ≥7 vs ≤2 servings/wk  375 cases, 375 controls 
  0.54 (0.34–0.87) Total ≥8 vs ≤3 servings/wk   
De Stefani et al. (15) Uruguay Oral and pharyngeal 0.9 (0.5–1.5) Raw  Carrot, lettuce, tomato 33 cases, 393 controls 
  0.8 (0.4–1.4) Total  Carrot, lettuce, tomato, onion, Swiss chard, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, winter squash, red pepper  
 Laryngeal 0.7 (0.4–1.1) Raw   34 cases, 393 controls 
  0.9 (0.6–1.6) Total    
 Esophageal 0.5 (0.4–0.8) Raw   66 cases, 393 controls 
  0.7 (0.5–0.9) Total    
Uzcudun et al. (16) Spain Pharyngeal 0.33 (0.11–0.63) Raw 3–4 days/wk vs 1–3 days/mo  232 cases, 232 controls 
Takezaki et al. (17) Japan Hypopharyngeal-male 0.2 (0.1–0.4) Raw Everyday vs occasionally or less  62 cases, 11,936 controls 
 Esophageal-male 0.6 (0.4–0.7)    284 cases, 11,936 controls 
Brown et al. (21) United States Esophageal-adenocarcinoma-male 0.4 Raw   162 cases, 685 controls 
  0.6§ Total  Green string beans or lima beans, red beets, broccoli, cooked cabbage, coleslaw, carrot, cauliflower, southern greens (collard and mustard greens or kale), okra, green peas, black-eyed peas or cow peas, etc.  
Brown et al. (22) United States Esophageal-male-White 0.4 Raw  Coleslaw, tomato, tossed salad 114 cases, 681 controls 
  0.4 Total  Same as Brown et al. (21)  
 Esophageal-male-Black 0.4 Raw   219 cases, 557 controls 
  1.0 Total    
Gao et al. (23) China Esophageal 0.07 (0.03–0.19) Raw Frequently vs almost never  81 cases, 234 controls 
 Gastric 0.07 (0.04–0.13)    153 cases, 234 controls 
Takezaki et al. (24) China Esophageal 0.30 (0.15–0.61) Raw Frequently vs almost never  199 cases, 333 controls 
  0.81 (0.46–1.44) Total Everyday vs <1 time/wk   
 Gastric 0.63 (0.29–1.38) Raw Frequently vs almost never  187 cases, 333 controls 
  0.50 (0.29–0.87) Total Everyday vs <1 time/wk   
Harrison et al. (30) United States Gastric-intestinal type 0.6 (0.4–1.1) Raw   60 cases, 132 controls 
  0.8 (0.5–1.3) Total    
 Gastric-diffuse type 0.6 (0.3–1.2) Raw   31 cases, 132 controls 
  0.7 (0.4–1.2) Total    
Galanis et al. (31) Hawaii (Japanese residents) Gastric 0.8 (0.5–1.2) Raw ≥7 vs ≤6 times/wk  108 cases, 11,907 cohort 
Huang et al. (32) Japan Gastric 0.80 (0.67–0.95) Raw Every day vs <3 times/wk  887 cases, 28,619 controls 
Ito et al. (33) Japan Gastric-female 0.50 (0.36–0.71) Raw Everyday vs almost never  508 cases, 36,490 controls 
Lee et al. (34) Korea Early gastric 0.2 (0.1–0.5) Raw >6 vs <4 servings/wk Head lettuce, lettuce, cabbage, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, pepper, carrot, onion, Perilla leaves 69 cases, 199 controls 
Ghadirian et al. (35) Canada (Francophone community) Pancreatic 0.28 (0.10–0.75) Raw Very often vs never  179 cases, 239 controls 
Takezaki et al. (47) Japan Lung-adenocarcinoma-male 1.01 (0.62–1.65) Raw Everyday vs almost never  748 male cases, 2,964 male controls, 297 female cases, 1,189 female controls 
 Lung-adenocarcinoma-female 0.84 (0.45–1.55)     
 Lung-squamous and small cell-male 0.8 (0.51–1.25)     
 Lung-squamous and small cell-female 1.01 (0.28–3.58)     
Wright et al. (48) Missouri Lung-female 0.74 (0.62–0.88) Raw  Tomato, spinach, coleslaw, green salad, carrot, carrot juice, olives, cucumber, jalapeno pepper, celery, red/green pepper, avocado, pickles 587 cases, 624 controls 
  0.67 (0.55–0.82) Total  Raw vegetables (above), string beans (green or yellow snap) peas, black-eyed peas, corn, cabbage/sauerkraut, winter squash, salsa/red chili sauce, broccoli/cauliflower/Brussels sprouts, etc.  
Le Marchand et al. (5) Hawaii Prostate 1.1 (0.7–1.7) Raw ≥302 vs ≤82 g/wk  198 cohort 
Appleby et al. (6) United Kingdom All malignant neoplasms 1.03 (0.83–1.23) Raw Daily vs less than daily “Raw salad” 181 cases, 10,771 cohort 
*

Calculated ORs for raw fruit and vegetables combined.

−FH, family history of aerodigestive cancer; +FH, no family history of cancer. Referent group was −FH.

95% CI does not include 1.0.

§

95% CI crosses 1.0.

RRs and 95% CIs calculated in these studies.

Calculated ORs for raw fruit and vegetables combined.

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