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Table 1.

Studies that compared raw and cooked vegetable intake and cancer risk

Author countryCancer siteOR (95% CI)VegetableComparison of quantity of intakeRaw/cooked vegetablesNo. subjects
Levi et al. (7) Switzerland Oral and pharyngeal 0.3 (0.16–0.58) Raw >8.5 vs ≤5.0 servings/wk  156 cases, 284 controls 
  0.14 (0.07–0.19) Cooked >8.6 vs ≤5.2 servings/wk   
Franceschi et al. (8) Italy Oral and pharyngeal 0.4 (0.3–0.6) Raw >14.1 vs ≤5 servings/wk  598 cases, 1,491 controls 
  0.5 (0.3–0.7) Cooked >4.5 vs ≤1.5 servings/wk   
De Stephani et al. (10) Uruguay Laryngeal-male 0.29 (0.15–0.56) Raw >31 vs ≤8.6 g/d Carrot, lettuce, tomato 148 cases, 444 controls 
  0.96 (0.5–1.84) Cooked >87.7 vs ≤35.5 g/d Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Bosetti et al. (9) Italy and Switzerland Laryngeal 0.22 (0.14–0.34) Raw >13.9 vs ≤5.4 servings/wk  527 cases, 1,297 controls 
  0.32 (0.21–0.49) Cooked >5.1 vs ≤1.6 servings/wk   
Bosetti et al. (18) northern Italy Esophageal 0.32 (0.19–0.55) Raw >12.6 vs ≤3.9 servings/wk  304 cases, 743 controls 
  0.79 (0.47–1.31) Cooked >4.3 vs ≤1.4 servings/wk   
De Stefani et al. (19) Uruguay Esophageal 0.52 (0.27–0.99) Raw ≥34.4 vs ≤8 g/d  111 cases, 444 controls 
  0.55 (0.29–1.03) Cooked ≥95.5 vs ≤36.1 g/d   
Levi et al. (20) Switzerland Esophageal 0.14 (0.1–0.4) Raw >9.5 vs ≤5.5 servings/wk  101 cases, 327 controls 
  0.19 (0.1–0.3) Cooked >8.0 vs ≤5.3 servings/wk   
Cornee et al. (25) France Gastric 0.41 (0.19–0.88) Raw  Tomato, lettuce, radish, cucumber, celery 92 cases, 128 controls 
  1.06 (0.53–2.13) Cooked  Swiss chard, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, courgette, beetroot, green beans, peas, eggplant, leek, mushrooms  
Botterweck et al. (26) the Netherlands* Gastric 0.81 (0.55–1.19) Raw Median intake 74 vs 8 g/d  310 cases, 3,346 controls 
  0.79 (0.55–1.14) Cooked Median intake 213 vs 79 g/d   
De Stefani et al. (27) Uruguay Gastric 0.52 (0.31–0.86) Raw ≥29.5 vs ≤9.0 g/d Carrot, lettuce, tomato 160 cases, 320 controls 
  0.93 (0.57–1.51) Cooked ≥90.0 vs ≤53.0 g/d Onion, garlic, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, beetroot, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Kim et al. (28) Korea Gastric 0.55 (0.28–1.09) Raw   136 cases, 136 controls 
  0.98 (0.50–1.90) Cooked    
Centonze et al. (36) southern Italy Colorectal 0.67 (0.35–1.29) Raw ≥76 vs ≤46 g/d Salad, celery, tomato, carrot 119 cases, 119 controls 
  0.59 (0.31–1.12) Cooked ≥267 vs ≤183 g/d Vegetable soup, spinach, beet, endive, eggplant, artichoke, green pepper, zucchini, cauliflower, peas, kidney beans, runner beans  
Franceschi et al. (38) Italy Colon 0.7 (0.7–0.8) Raw >12 vs ≤4.0 servings/wk  1,225 cases, 4,154 controls 
  0.7 (0.6–0.8) Cooked >7.3 vs ≤2.9 servings/wk   
 Rectal and rectosigmoid 0.8 (0.7–1.0) Raw >12 vs ≤4.0 servings/wk  728 cases, 4,154 controls 
  0.7 (0.7–0.8) Cooked >7.3 vs ≤2.9 servings/wk   
Boutron-Ruault et al. (39) France Colorectal 1.0 (0.5–1.8) Raw   171 cases, 202 controls 
  0.8 (0.4–1.5) Cooked    
Levi et al. (40) Switzerland Colorectal 0.49 (0.3–0.78) Raw >9 vs ≤5.5 servings/wk  223 cases, 291 controls 
  0.41 (0.26–0.66) Cooked >8.75 vs ≤5.25 servings/wk   
Voorips et al. (41) the Netherlands* Colon-male 0.79 (0.54–1.16) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d Endive, carrot, tomato, lettuce 313 cases, 1,456 subcohort 
  0.94 (0.64–1.39) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, endive, beetroot, string beans, broad beans, kale, carrot, sweet pepper, sauerkraut, rhubarb, mushroom, gherkin  
 Colon-female 1.02 (0.67–1.54) Raw Median intake 76 vs 10 g/d  274 cases, 1,497 subcohort 
  0.75 (0.49–1.14) Cooked Median intake 229 vs 80 g/d   
 Rectal-male 0.93 (0.58–1.47) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d  201 cases, 1,456 subcohort 
  0.96 (0.61–1.51) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d   
 Rectal-female 1.24 (0.67–2.26) Raw Median intake 76 vs 10 g/d  122 cases, 1,497 subcohort 
  1.34 (0.74–2.42) Cooked Median intake 229 vs 80 g/d   
Deneo-Pellegrini et al. (42) Uruguay Colorectal 0.8 (0.6–1.0) Raw  Carrot, tomato, lettuce 484 cases, 1,452 controls 
  0.9 (0.7–1.2) Cooked  Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, potato, sweet potato, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper, kidney bean, lentil  
Mayne et al. (44) New York Lung-male (nonsmokers) 0.41 Raw   212 cases, 212 controls 
  1.02§ Cooked    
 Lung-female (nonsmokers) 0.40 Raw   201 cases, 201 controls 
  0.69§ Cooked    
Voorips et al. (46) the Netherlands* Lung 0.7 (0.6–1.0) Raw Median intake 74 vs 8 g/d Endive, carrot, lettuce, tomato 1,010 cases, 2,953 subcohort 
  0.8 (0.6–1.1) Cooked Median intake 231 vs 79 g/d Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, endive, beetroot, string beans, broad beans, kale, carrot, sweet pepper, sauerkraut, rhubarb, mushroom, gherkin  
De Stefani et al. (45) Uruguay Lung-male 0.97 (0.64–1.45) Raw  Carrot, lettuce, tomato 200 cases, 600 controls 
  0.50 (0.32–0.76) Cooked  Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, potato, sweet potato, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper, kidney bean, lentil  
Franceschi et al. (49) Italy Breast 0.73 (0.6–0.88) Raw >12.5 vs ≤4.9 servings/wk Lettuce-like salad, carrot, tomato, mixed salad 2,569 cases, 2,588 controls 
  0.96 (0.79–1.16) Cooked >7.5 vs ≤3.1 servings/wk Pulses, carrot, onion, artichoke, Cruciferae, spinach, zucchini, pepper, eggplant, savory pie, vegetable soup  
Ronco et al. (50) Uruguay Breast 0.51 (0.33–0.79) Raw >6.5 vs <2.7 servings/wk  400 cases, 405 controls 
  0.58 (0.36–0.94) Cooked >9.8 vs <6.3 servings/wk   
Adzersen et al. (51) Germany Breast 0.51 (0.31–0.84) Raw >65.0 vs <23.7 g/d Mixed salads, fresh herbs, green leafy salads, tomatoes, cucumbers, red/green peppers, carrots, radishes, cabbage, sprouts  
  1.26 (0.77–2.06) Cooked >45.5 vs <18.3 g/d Pulses, other cooked vegetables not specified  
Bosetti et al. (54) Italy Ovarian 0.47 (0.34–0.64) Raw >11.5 vs ≤6.5 servings/wk  1,031 cases, 2,411 controls 
  0.65 (0.48–0.87) Cooked >5.0 vs ≤1.8 servings/wk   
McCann et al. (53) New York Endometrial 0.6 (0.3–0.9) Raw >120 vs ≤54 times/mo  232 cases, 639 controls 
  0.5 (0.3–0.8) Cooked >111 vs ≤61 times/mo   
Schuurman et al. (55) the Netherlands* Prostate 0.96 (0.68–1.32) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d  704 cases, 1,688 controls 
  0.85 (0.61–1.19) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d   
Balbi et al. (56) Uruguay Bladder 1.15 (0.74–1.80) Raw Mean intake, cases 27.9 g/d, controls 26.6 g/d Carrot, tomato, lettuce 144 cases, 576 controls 
  0.53 (0.32–0.87) Cooked Cases 68.7 g/d, controls 58.9 g/d Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Zeegers et al. (57) the Netherlands* Urothelial 0.94 (0.69–1.27) Raw ≥193 vs <99 g/d  619 cases, 3,346 subcohort 
  1.01 (0.75–1.37) Cooked ≥58 vs <16 g/d   
Author countryCancer siteOR (95% CI)VegetableComparison of quantity of intakeRaw/cooked vegetablesNo. subjects
Levi et al. (7) Switzerland Oral and pharyngeal 0.3 (0.16–0.58) Raw >8.5 vs ≤5.0 servings/wk  156 cases, 284 controls 
  0.14 (0.07–0.19) Cooked >8.6 vs ≤5.2 servings/wk   
Franceschi et al. (8) Italy Oral and pharyngeal 0.4 (0.3–0.6) Raw >14.1 vs ≤5 servings/wk  598 cases, 1,491 controls 
  0.5 (0.3–0.7) Cooked >4.5 vs ≤1.5 servings/wk   
De Stephani et al. (10) Uruguay Laryngeal-male 0.29 (0.15–0.56) Raw >31 vs ≤8.6 g/d Carrot, lettuce, tomato 148 cases, 444 controls 
  0.96 (0.5–1.84) Cooked >87.7 vs ≤35.5 g/d Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Bosetti et al. (9) Italy and Switzerland Laryngeal 0.22 (0.14–0.34) Raw >13.9 vs ≤5.4 servings/wk  527 cases, 1,297 controls 
  0.32 (0.21–0.49) Cooked >5.1 vs ≤1.6 servings/wk   
Bosetti et al. (18) northern Italy Esophageal 0.32 (0.19–0.55) Raw >12.6 vs ≤3.9 servings/wk  304 cases, 743 controls 
  0.79 (0.47–1.31) Cooked >4.3 vs ≤1.4 servings/wk   
De Stefani et al. (19) Uruguay Esophageal 0.52 (0.27–0.99) Raw ≥34.4 vs ≤8 g/d  111 cases, 444 controls 
  0.55 (0.29–1.03) Cooked ≥95.5 vs ≤36.1 g/d   
Levi et al. (20) Switzerland Esophageal 0.14 (0.1–0.4) Raw >9.5 vs ≤5.5 servings/wk  101 cases, 327 controls 
  0.19 (0.1–0.3) Cooked >8.0 vs ≤5.3 servings/wk   
Cornee et al. (25) France Gastric 0.41 (0.19–0.88) Raw  Tomato, lettuce, radish, cucumber, celery 92 cases, 128 controls 
  1.06 (0.53–2.13) Cooked  Swiss chard, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, courgette, beetroot, green beans, peas, eggplant, leek, mushrooms  
Botterweck et al. (26) the Netherlands* Gastric 0.81 (0.55–1.19) Raw Median intake 74 vs 8 g/d  310 cases, 3,346 controls 
  0.79 (0.55–1.14) Cooked Median intake 213 vs 79 g/d   
De Stefani et al. (27) Uruguay Gastric 0.52 (0.31–0.86) Raw ≥29.5 vs ≤9.0 g/d Carrot, lettuce, tomato 160 cases, 320 controls 
  0.93 (0.57–1.51) Cooked ≥90.0 vs ≤53.0 g/d Onion, garlic, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, beetroot, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Kim et al. (28) Korea Gastric 0.55 (0.28–1.09) Raw   136 cases, 136 controls 
  0.98 (0.50–1.90) Cooked    
Centonze et al. (36) southern Italy Colorectal 0.67 (0.35–1.29) Raw ≥76 vs ≤46 g/d Salad, celery, tomato, carrot 119 cases, 119 controls 
  0.59 (0.31–1.12) Cooked ≥267 vs ≤183 g/d Vegetable soup, spinach, beet, endive, eggplant, artichoke, green pepper, zucchini, cauliflower, peas, kidney beans, runner beans  
Franceschi et al. (38) Italy Colon 0.7 (0.7–0.8) Raw >12 vs ≤4.0 servings/wk  1,225 cases, 4,154 controls 
  0.7 (0.6–0.8) Cooked >7.3 vs ≤2.9 servings/wk   
 Rectal and rectosigmoid 0.8 (0.7–1.0) Raw >12 vs ≤4.0 servings/wk  728 cases, 4,154 controls 
  0.7 (0.7–0.8) Cooked >7.3 vs ≤2.9 servings/wk   
Boutron-Ruault et al. (39) France Colorectal 1.0 (0.5–1.8) Raw   171 cases, 202 controls 
  0.8 (0.4–1.5) Cooked    
Levi et al. (40) Switzerland Colorectal 0.49 (0.3–0.78) Raw >9 vs ≤5.5 servings/wk  223 cases, 291 controls 
  0.41 (0.26–0.66) Cooked >8.75 vs ≤5.25 servings/wk   
Voorips et al. (41) the Netherlands* Colon-male 0.79 (0.54–1.16) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d Endive, carrot, tomato, lettuce 313 cases, 1,456 subcohort 
  0.94 (0.64–1.39) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, endive, beetroot, string beans, broad beans, kale, carrot, sweet pepper, sauerkraut, rhubarb, mushroom, gherkin  
 Colon-female 1.02 (0.67–1.54) Raw Median intake 76 vs 10 g/d  274 cases, 1,497 subcohort 
  0.75 (0.49–1.14) Cooked Median intake 229 vs 80 g/d   
 Rectal-male 0.93 (0.58–1.47) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d  201 cases, 1,456 subcohort 
  0.96 (0.61–1.51) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d   
 Rectal-female 1.24 (0.67–2.26) Raw Median intake 76 vs 10 g/d  122 cases, 1,497 subcohort 
  1.34 (0.74–2.42) Cooked Median intake 229 vs 80 g/d   
Deneo-Pellegrini et al. (42) Uruguay Colorectal 0.8 (0.6–1.0) Raw  Carrot, tomato, lettuce 484 cases, 1,452 controls 
  0.9 (0.7–1.2) Cooked  Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, potato, sweet potato, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper, kidney bean, lentil  
Mayne et al. (44) New York Lung-male (nonsmokers) 0.41 Raw   212 cases, 212 controls 
  1.02§ Cooked    
 Lung-female (nonsmokers) 0.40 Raw   201 cases, 201 controls 
  0.69§ Cooked    
Voorips et al. (46) the Netherlands* Lung 0.7 (0.6–1.0) Raw Median intake 74 vs 8 g/d Endive, carrot, lettuce, tomato 1,010 cases, 2,953 subcohort 
  0.8 (0.6–1.1) Cooked Median intake 231 vs 79 g/d Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, endive, beetroot, string beans, broad beans, kale, carrot, sweet pepper, sauerkraut, rhubarb, mushroom, gherkin  
De Stefani et al. (45) Uruguay Lung-male 0.97 (0.64–1.45) Raw  Carrot, lettuce, tomato 200 cases, 600 controls 
  0.50 (0.32–0.76) Cooked  Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, potato, sweet potato, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper, kidney bean, lentil  
Franceschi et al. (49) Italy Breast 0.73 (0.6–0.88) Raw >12.5 vs ≤4.9 servings/wk Lettuce-like salad, carrot, tomato, mixed salad 2,569 cases, 2,588 controls 
  0.96 (0.79–1.16) Cooked >7.5 vs ≤3.1 servings/wk Pulses, carrot, onion, artichoke, Cruciferae, spinach, zucchini, pepper, eggplant, savory pie, vegetable soup  
Ronco et al. (50) Uruguay Breast 0.51 (0.33–0.79) Raw >6.5 vs <2.7 servings/wk  400 cases, 405 controls 
  0.58 (0.36–0.94) Cooked >9.8 vs <6.3 servings/wk   
Adzersen et al. (51) Germany Breast 0.51 (0.31–0.84) Raw >65.0 vs <23.7 g/d Mixed salads, fresh herbs, green leafy salads, tomatoes, cucumbers, red/green peppers, carrots, radishes, cabbage, sprouts  
  1.26 (0.77–2.06) Cooked >45.5 vs <18.3 g/d Pulses, other cooked vegetables not specified  
Bosetti et al. (54) Italy Ovarian 0.47 (0.34–0.64) Raw >11.5 vs ≤6.5 servings/wk  1,031 cases, 2,411 controls 
  0.65 (0.48–0.87) Cooked >5.0 vs ≤1.8 servings/wk   
McCann et al. (53) New York Endometrial 0.6 (0.3–0.9) Raw >120 vs ≤54 times/mo  232 cases, 639 controls 
  0.5 (0.3–0.8) Cooked >111 vs ≤61 times/mo   
Schuurman et al. (55) the Netherlands* Prostate 0.96 (0.68–1.32) Raw Median intake 73 vs 7 g/d  704 cases, 1,688 controls 
  0.85 (0.61–1.19) Cooked Median intake 234 vs 79 g/d   
Balbi et al. (56) Uruguay Bladder 1.15 (0.74–1.80) Raw Mean intake, cases 27.9 g/d, controls 26.6 g/d Carrot, tomato, lettuce 144 cases, 576 controls 
  0.53 (0.32–0.87) Cooked Cases 68.7 g/d, controls 58.9 g/d Onion, Swiss chard, spinach, winter squash, cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, red pepper  
Zeegers et al. (57) the Netherlands* Urothelial 0.94 (0.69–1.27) Raw ≥193 vs <99 g/d  619 cases, 3,346 subcohort 
  1.01 (0.75–1.37) Cooked ≥58 vs <16 g/d   
*

RRs and 95% CIs calculated in these studies.

Represents raw versus cooked fruits and vegetables.

95% CI does not include 1.0.

§

95% CI crosses 1.0.

Within the highest and lowest quantiles.

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