KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer and facilitates uncontrolled growth through hyperactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The Son of Sevenless homolog 1 (SOS1) protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the RAS subfamily of small GTPases and represents a druggable target in the pathway. Using a structure-based drug discovery approach, MRTX0902 was identified as a selective and potent SOS1 inhibitor that disrupts the KRAS:SOS1 protein–protein interaction to prevent SOS1-mediated nucleotide exchange on KRAS and translates into an anti-proliferative effect in cancer cell lines with genetic alterations of the KRAS–MAPK pathway. MRTX0902 augmented the antitumor activity of the KRAS G12C inhibitor adagrasib when dosed in combination in eight out of 12 KRAS G12C–mutant human non–small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer xenograft models. Pharmacogenomic profiling in preclinical models identified cell cycle genes and the SOS2 homolog as genetic co-dependencies and implicated tumor suppressor genes (NF1 and PTEN) in resistance following combination treatment. Lastly, combined vertical inhibition of RTK/MAPK pathway signaling by MRTX0902 with inhibitors of EGFR or RAF/MEK led to greater downregulation of pathway signaling and improved antitumor responses in KRAS–MAPK pathway–mutant models. These studies demonstrate the potential clinical application of dual inhibition of SOS1 and KRAS G12C and additional SOS1 combination strategies that will aide in the understanding of SOS1 and RTK/MAPK biology in targeted cancer therapy.

This content is only available via PDF.
This open access article is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview

Supplementary data