Brentuximab vedotin, a CD30-directed antibody–drug conjugate (ADC), is approved for clinical use in multiple CD30-expressing lymphomas. The cytotoxic payload component of brentuximab vedotin is monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a highly potent microtubule-disrupting agent. Preclinical results provided here demonstrate that treatment of cancer cells with brentuximab vedotin or free MMAE leads to a catastrophic disruption of the microtubule network eliciting a robust endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that culminates in the induction of the classic hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD). In accordance with the induction of ICD, brentuximab vedotin–killed lymphoma cells drove innate immune cell activation in vitro and in vivo. In the “gold-standard” test of ICD, vaccination of mice with brentuximab vedotin or free MMAE-killed tumor cells protected animals from tumor rechallenge; in addition, T cells transferred from previously vaccinated animals slowed tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Immunity acquired from killed tumor cell vaccination was further amplified by the addition of PD-1 blockade. In a humanized model of CD30+ B-cell tumors, treatment with brentuximab vedotin drove the expansion and recruitment of autologous Epstein-Barr virus–reactive CD8+ T cells potentiating the activity of anti–PD-1 therapy. Together, these data support the ability of brentuximab vedotin and MMAE to drive ICD in tumor cells resulting in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and augmented T-cell immunity. These data provide a strong rationale for the clinical combination of brentuximab vedotin and other MMAE-based ADCs with checkpoint inhibitors.