Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) elicit anti-tumour activity in homologous recombination defective cancers by promoting cytotoxic, chromatin-bound, “trapped” PARP1. How cells process trapped PARP1 remains unclear. By exploiting wild-type or trapping-resistant PARP1 transgenes combined with either a rapid immunoprecipitation mass-spectrometry of endogenous proteins (RIME)-based approach or PARP1 Apex2-proximity labelling linked to mass-spectrometry, we generated proteomic profiles of trapped and non-trapped PARP1 complexes. This combined approach identified an interaction between trapped PARP1 and the ubiquitin-regulated p97 ATPase (aka VCP). Subsequent experiments demonstrated that upon trapping, PARP1 is SUMOylated by the SUMO-ligase PIAS4 and subsequently ubiquitinated by the SUMO-targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase, RNF4, events that promote p97 recruitment and p97 ATPase-mediated removal of trapped-PARP1 from chromatin. Consistent with this, small molecule p97 complex inhibitors, including a metabolite of the clinically-used drug disulfiram, CuET that acts as a p97 sequestration agent, prolong PARP1 trapping and thus enhance PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in homologous recombination defective tumour cells and patient-derived tumour organoids. Taken together, these results suggest that p97 ATPase plays a key role in the processing of trapped PARP1 from chromatin and the response of homologous recombination defective tumour cells to PARPi.
Citation Format: Dragomir Krastev, Shudong Li, Yilun Sun, Yves Pommier, Kristijan Ramadan, Christopher J. Lord. The ubiquitin-dependent ATPase p97 removes cytotoxic trapped PARP1 from chromatin [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-NCI-EORTC Virtual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics; 2021 Oct 7-10. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Mol Cancer Ther 2021;20(12 Suppl):Abstract nr P057.