Oncogenic fusions of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) define a subset of human lung adenocarcinoma. The 1st generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib demonstrated impressive clinical benefit in ALK-fusion positive lung cancers and was approved by the FDA for the treatment of ALK-fusion positive NSCLC in 2011. However, as seen with most kinase inhibitors, patients treated with crizotinib eventually develop resistance to therapy. Acquired ALK kinase domain mutations and disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS) are reported as main contributors to patient relapse after ALK inhibitor therapy. Preclinically, crizotinib lacks significant brain penetration and does not potently inhibit activity of ALK kinase domain mutants, so a drug discovery program was initiated aimed to develop a second generation ALK inhibitor that is more potent than existing ALK inhibitors, capable of inhibiting the resistant ALK mutants and penetrating the blood-brain-barrier. These objectives present a considerable challenge in kinase inhibitor chemical space. Here we report that PF-06463922, a novel small molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of ALK/ROS1, showed exquisite potencies against non-mutant ALK (Ki <0.2 nM; cell IC50 ∼2 nM) and ROS1 kinase (Ki <0.005 nM; cell IC50 ∼0.2 nM), and demonstrated low nanomolar inhibitory activity against a panel of ALK kinase domain mutants representing all of the patient crizotinib resistant mutations reported to date. The more commonly reported L1196M gatekeeper mutant shows significant sensitivity to PF-06463922 (Ki 0.7 nM; cell IC50 16 nM). PF-06463922 is also very selective, and showed >100 fold kinase selectivity against 95% of the kinases tested in a 207 recombinant kinase panel. Specific design considerations were developed leading to novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors with desired low efflux in cell lines over-expressing p-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein, providing excellent blood-brain-barrier and cell penetration properties. Efforts to optimize ligand efficiency and lipophilic efficiency leveraging structure based drug design techniques led to ligands with overlapping broad spectrum potency and low efflux. Single and repeat dose preclinical rat in vivo studies of PF-06463922 demonstrated excellent oral bioavailability and CNS availability with free brain exposure approximately 30% of free plasma levels. In addition, CNS-directed safety studies showed no adverse events at predicted efficacious concentrations. It is anticipated that PF-06463922 with its potent activities on non-mutant ALK, ALK kinase domain mutations and CNS metastases would provide great promise for patients with ALK and ROS1 positive cancers.
Citation Information: Mol Cancer Ther 2013;12(11 Suppl):PR10.
Citation Format: Ted W. Johnson, Simon Bailey, Benjamin J. Burke, Michael R. Collins, J. Jean Cui, Judy Deal, Ya-Li Deng, Martin P. Edwards, Mingying He, Jacqui Hoffman, Robert L. Hoffman, Qinhua Huang, Robert S. Kania, Phuong Le, Michele McTigue, Cynthia L. Palmer, Paul F. Richardson, Neal W. Sach, Graham L. Smith, Lars Engstrom, Wenyue Hu, Hieu Lam, Justine L. Lam, Tod Smeal, Helen Y. Zou. Is CNS availability for oncology a no-brainer? Discovery of PF-06463922, a novel small molecule inhibitor of ALK/ROS1 with preclinical brain availability and broad spectrum potency against ALK-resistant mutations. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference: Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics; 2013 Oct 19-23; Boston, MA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Mol Cancer Ther 2013;12(11 Suppl):Abstract nr PR10.