Innovative strategies for enhancing efficacy and overcoming drug resistance in hematologic cancers, such as using antibody–drug conjugates (ADC), have shifted the paradigm of conventional care by delivering promising outcomes in cancer therapies with a significant reduction in the risk of relapse. Transferrin receptor (TfR1), cluster of differentiation 71 (CD71), is known to be overexpressed in malignant cells and considered a potent antitumor target. Therefore, we developed an anti-CD71 ADC, INA03, a humanized antibody conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E through a 3-arylpropiolonitrile–valine–citrulline linker. In this study, we investigated the potency and safety of INA03, in competition with Transferrin (Tf), the CD71’s natural ligand, as a novel strategy to specifically target highly proliferative cells. The high expression of CD71 was confirmed on different leukemic cell lines, allowing INA03 to bind efficiently. Subsequently, INA03 rapidly internalizes into lysosomal compartments, in which its cytotoxic drug is released following cathepsin B cleavage. Downregulation of CD71 expression using shRNA highlighted that INA03-induced cell death was dependent on CD71 density at the cell surface. INA03 intravenous treatment in acute leukemia mouse models significantly reduced tumor burden, increased mouse survival, and showed no residual disease compared with conventional chemotherapies. Because INA03 competes with human Tf, a double knock-in (human CD71/human Tf) competent mouse model was generated to mimic human pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. INA03 administration in human CD71/hTf mice did not reveal any improper toxicities, even at high doses. Hence, these data demonstrate the promising preclinical efficacy and safety of INA03 and support its development as a novel acute leukemia treatment.


The Tf receptor is believed to be undruggable because of its ubiquitous expression. By entering into competition with its cognate ligand, the Tf and INA03 ADC can safely achieve potency.

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