Anticancer nucleosides are effective against solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, but typically are prone to nucleoside metabolism resistance mechanisms. Using a nucleoside-specific multiplexed high-throughput screening approach, we discovered 4′-ethynyl-2′-deoxycytidine (EdC) as a third-generation anticancer nucleoside prodrug with preferential activity against diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). EdC requires deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) phosphorylation for its activity and induces replication fork arrest and accumulation of cells in S-phase, indicating it acts as a chain terminator. A 2.1Å cocrystal structure of DCK bound to EdC and UDP reveals how the rigid 4′-alkyne of EdC fits within the active site of DCK. Remarkably, EdC was resistant to cytidine deamination and SAMHD1 metabolism mechanisms and exhibited higher potency against ALL compared with FDA-approved nelarabine. Finally, EdC was highly effective against DLBCL tumors and B-ALL in vivo. These data characterize EdC as a preclinical nucleoside prodrug candidate for DLBCL and ALL.