In solid tumors, three main complementary approaches of adoptive T-cell therapies were successively developed: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells, and high-affinity T-cell receptor engineered T cells. In this review, we summarized rational and main results of these three adoptive T-cell therapies in solid tumors field and gave an overview of encouraging data and their limits. Then, we listed the major remaining challenges (including tumor antigen loss, on-target/off-tumor effect, tumor access difficulties and general/local immunosubversion) and their lines of research. Finally, we gave insight into the ongoing trials in solid tumor.

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