Patients with prostate cancer whose tumors bear deleterious mutations in DNA-repair pathways often respond to PARP inhibitors. Studies were conducted to compare the activity of several PARP inhibitors in vitro and their tissue exposure and in vivo efficacy in mice bearing PC-3M-luc-C6 prostate tumors grown subcutaneously or in bone. Niraparib, olaparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib were compared in proliferation assays, using several prostate tumor cell lines and in a cell-free PARP-trapping assay. PC-3M-luc-C6 cells were approximately 12- to 20-fold more sensitive to PARP inhibition than other prostate tumor lines, suggesting that these cells bear a DNA damage repair defect. The tissue exposure and efficacy of these PARP inhibitors were evaluated in vivo in PC-3M-luc-C6 subcutaneous and bone metastasis tumor models. A steady-state pharmacokinetic study in PC-3M-luc-C6 tumor-bearing mice showed that all of the PARP inhibitors had favorable subcutaneous tumor exposure, but niraparib was differentiated by superior bone marrow exposure compared with the other drugs. In a PC-3M-luc-C6 subcutaneous tumor efficacy study, niraparib, olaparib, and talazoparib inhibited tumor growth and increased survival to a similar degree. In contrast, in the PC-3M-luc-C6 bone metastasis model, niraparib showed the most potent inhibition of bone tumor growth compared with the other therapies (67% vs. 40%–45% on day 17), and the best survival improvement over vehicle control [hazard ratio (HR), 0.28 vs. HR, 0.46–0.59] and over other therapies (HR, 1.68–2.16). These results show that niraparib has superior bone marrow exposure and greater inhibition of tumor growth in bone, compared with olaparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib.

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