Advances in antibody engineering have enabled the construction of novel molecular formats in diverse shapes and sizes, providing new opportunities for cancer immunotherapeutic drug discovery while also revealing limitations in knowledge of structure–activity relationships. The current understanding of renal filtration originates largely from data reported for dextrans, IgG, albumin, and selected globular proteins. For a one-armed IgG-based T-cell imaging agent, we observed higher renal signal than typically observed for bivalent IgGs, prompting us to explore the factors governing renal filtration of biologics. We constructed a small representative library of IgG-like formats with varied shapes and hinge flexibilities falling broadly into two categories: branched molecules including bivalent IgG and (scFv)2Fc, and nonbranched molecules including one-armed IgG, one-armed IgG with stacked Fab, and one-armed IgG with a rigid IgA2 hinge. Transmission electron microscopy revealed Y-shaped structures for the branched molecules and pseudo-linear structures for the nonbranched molecules. Single-photon emission CT imaging, autoradiography, and tissue harvest studies demonstrated higher renal uptake and catabolism for nonbranched molecules relative to branched molecules. Among the nonbranched molecules, the one-armed IgG with rigid IgA2 hinge molecule demonstrated higher kidney uptake and decreased systemic exposure relative to molecules with a more flexible hinge. Our results show that differences in shape and hinge flexibility drive the increased glomerular filtration of one-armed relative to bivalent antibodies and highlight the practical advantages of using imaging to assess renal filtration properties. These findings are particularly relevant for T-cell–dependent bispecific molecules, many of which have nonstandard antibody structures.

You do not currently have access to this content.