Humans are in a complex symbiotic relationship with a wide range of microbial organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The evolution and composition of the human microbiome can be an indicator of how it may affect human health and susceptibility to diseases. Microbiome alteration, termed as dysbiosis, has been linked to the pathogenesis and progression of hematological cancers. A variety of mechanisms, including epithelial barrier disruption, local chronic inflammation response trigger, antigen dis-sequestration, and molecular mimicry, have been proposed to be associated with gut microbiota. Dysbiosis may be induced or worsened by cancer therapies (such as chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) or infection. The use of antibiotics during treatment may also promote dysbiosis, with possible long-term consequences. The aim of this review is to provide a succinct summary of the current knowledge describing the role of the microbiome in hematological cancers, as well as its influence on their therapies. Modulation of the gut microbiome, involving modifying the composition of the beneficial microorganisms in the management and treatment of hematological cancers is also discussed. Additionally discussed are the latest developments in modeling approaches and tools used for computational analyses, interpretation and better understanding of the gut microbiome data.

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