Pancreatic cancer is characterized by aberrant activity of oncogenic KRAS, which is mutated in 90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Because KRAS itself is a challenging therapeutic target, we focused on understanding key signaling pathways driven by KRAS as a way to reveal dependencies that are amenable to therapeutic intervention. Analyses in primary human pancreatic cancers and model systems revealed that the receptor for the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is downregulated by mutant KRAS. Furthermore, downregulation of the LIF receptor (LIFR) is necessary for KRAS-mediated neoplastic transformation. We found LIFR exerts inhibitory effects on KRAS-mediated transformation by inhibiting expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, a key mediator of the enhanced glycolysis found in KRAS-driven malignancies. Decreased LIFR expression leads to increased GLUT1 as well as increases in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The repression of GLUT1 by LIFR is mediated by the transcription factor STAT3, indicating a tumor-suppressive role for STAT3 within cancer cells with mutated KRAS. Finally, reflecting a clinically important tumor-suppressive role of LIFR, decreased LIFR expression correlates with shorter survival in pancreatic cancer patients with mutated KRAS. Similar findings were found in non–small cell lung cancers driven by mutated KRAS, suggesting that silencing LIFR is a generalized mechanism of KRAS-mediated cellular transformation. These results indicate that the LIFR/STAT3 pathway may mediate either tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressive signaling pathways depending on the genetic background of tumor cells, and may play diverse roles within other cells in the tumor microenvironment.
Mutant KRAS drives downregulation of the receptor for LIF, thereby allowing an increase in expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 and increases in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration.