Clinical trials supporting oncology drug approvals frequently underrepresent diverse racial and ethnic populations. Recent policies have focused on ensuring premarket clinical trials are more inclusive and representative of racial and ethnic diversity in the general U.S. population or intended patient population; however, recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on postmarketing approaches to collecting data in underrepresented populations demonstrates that, in certain circumstances, postmarketing requirements and/or commitments (PMR/Cs) may be issued to conduct more representative studies if there are remaining questions about safety or efficacy. This analysis demonstrates that prior to 2020, no drugs had PMR/Cs to further characterize use in a more representative population, and in the last 3 years, more than half of novel oncology approvals have had such a PMR/C (21/40, 53%). In addition, this analysis helps to identify characteristics, such as single-arm pivotal trial design, U.S. enrollment, and results of safety subgroup analyses based on race and ethnicity, that may contribute to decisions to issue a PMR/C to conduct a study that is more representative of the racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. or intended patient population. These results can inform efforts to improve premarket clinical trials to ensure they are representative and able to characterize use in any patient who may need the drug.

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