Purpose: Immune-related cutaneous adverse events (ircAEs) occur in ≥50% of patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors (CPI), but mechanisms are poorly understood. Experimental Design: Phenotyping/biomarker analyses were conducted in 200 patients on CPIs (139 with ircAEs, 61 without, control) to characterize their clinical presentation and immunologic endotypes. Cytokines were evaluated in skin biopsies, skin tape strip (STS) extracts and plasma using real-time PCR and Meso Scale Discovery multiplex cytokine assays. Results: Eight ircAE phenotypes were identified: pruritus (26%), maculopapular rash (MPR; 21%), eczema (19%), lichenoid (11%), urticaria (8%), psoriasiform (6%), vitiligo (5%), and bullous dermatitis (4%). All phenotypes showed skin lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltrates. Skin biopsy PCR revealed the highest increase in IFN-gamma mRNA in patients with lichenoid (p<0.0001) and psoriasiform dermatitis (p<0.01) as compared to patients without ircAEs, while the highest IL-13 mRNA levels were detected in the eczema (p<0.0001, compared to control). IL-17A mRNA was selectively increased in psoriasiform (p<0.001), lichenoid (p<0.0001), bullous dermatitis (p<0.05) and MPR (p<0.001), compared to control. Distinct cytokine profiles were confirmed in STS and plasma. Analysis determined increased skin/plasma IL-4 cytokine in pruritus, skin IL-13 in eczema, plasma IL-5 and IL-31 in eczema and urticaria, and mixed-cytokine pathways in MPR. Broad inhibition via corticosteroids or type 2-cytokine targeted inhibition resulted in clinical benefit in these ircAEs. In contrast, significant skin upregulation of type 1/type 17 pathways was found in psoriasiform, lichenoid, bullous dermatitis, and type 1 activation in vitiligo. Conclusions: Distinct immunologic ircAE endotypes suggest actionable targets for precision medicine-based interventions.

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