Alpelisib is a PI3K alpha (PI3Kα)-selective inhibitor approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive/HER2-negative (HR+/HER2−) PIK3CA-mutated advanced breast cancer (ABC) based on the SOLAR-1 trial, which defined 11 substitutions in exons 7, 9, and 20 in PIK3CA (SOLAR1m). We report alpelisib effectiveness for ABC harboring SOLAR1m, as well as other pathogenic PIK3CA mutations (OTHERm) using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP).
A total of 33,977 tissue and 1,587 liquid biopsies were analyzed using hybrid capture–based CGP covering the entire coding sequence of PIK3CA. Clinical characteristics and treatment history were available for 10,750 patients with ABC in the deidentified Flatiron Health-Foundation Medicine clinico-genomic database (FH-FMI CGDB).
PIK3CAm were detected in 11,767/33,977 (35%) of tissue biopsies, including 2,300 (7%) samples with OTHERm and no SOLAR1m. Liquid biopsy had 77% sensitivity detecting PIK3CAm, increasing to 95% with circulating tumor DNA fraction ≥2%. In patients with HR+/HER2− ABC and PIK3CAm receiving alpelisib/fulvestrant (ALP+FUL; n = 182) or fulvestrant alone (FUL; n = 119), median real-world progression-free survival (rwPFS) was 5.9 months on ALP+FUL [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.1–7.4] versus 3.1 months on FUL (95% CI: 2.7–3.7; P < 0.0001). In patients with OTHERm, median rwPFS was 4.0 months on ALP+FUL (95% CI: 2.8–10.1) versus 2.5 months on FUL (95% CI: 2.2–3.7; P = 0.0054).
CGP detects diverse PIK3CAm in a greater number of patients with ABC than PCR hotspot testing; 20% of patients with PIK3CAm do not have SOLAR1m. These patients may derive benefit from alpelisib.