A consistent genetic alteration in vascular cancer epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is the t(1;3)(p36;q25) chromosomal translocation, which generates a WWTR1(TAZ)-CAMTA1 (TC) fusion gene. TC is a transcriptional coactivator that drives EHE. Here, we aimed to identify the TC transcriptional targets and signaling mechanisms that underlie EHE tumorigenesis.

Experimental Design:

We used NIH3T3 cells transformed with TC (NIH3T3/TC) as a model system to uncover TC-dependent oncogenic signaling. These cells proliferated in an anchorage-independent manner in suspension and soft agar. The findings of the cell-based studies were validated in a xenograft model.


We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a tumorigenic transcriptional target of TC. We show that CTGF binds to integrin αIIbβ3, which is essential for sustaining the anchorage-independent proliferation of transformed NIH3T3/TC cells. NIH3T3/TC cells also have enhanced Ras and MAPK signaling, and the activity of these pathways is reduced upon CTGF knockdown, suggesting that CTGF signaling occurs via the Ras-MAPK cascade. Further, pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK signaling through PD 0325901 and trametinib abrogated TC-driven anchorage-independent growth. Likewise, for tumor growth in vivo, NIH3T3/TC cells require CTGF and MAPK signaling. NIH3T3/TC xenograft growth was profoundly reduced upon CTGF knockdown and after trametinib treatment.


Collectively, our results demonstrated that CTGF and the Ras-MAPK signaling cascade are essential for TC-mediated tumorigenesis. These studies provided the preclinical rationale for SARC033 (NCI 10015-NCT03148275), a nonrandomized, open-label, phase II study of trametinib in patients with unresectable or metastatic EHE.

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