Purpose:

TRX518 is a mAb engaging the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor−related protein (GITR). This open-label, phase I study (TRX518-003) evaluated the safety and efficacy of repeated dose TRX518 monotherapy and in combination with gemcitabine, pembrolizumab, or nivolumab in advanced solid tumors.

Patients and Methods:

TRX518 monotherapy was dose escalated (Part A) and expanded (Part B) up to 4 mg/kg loading, 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Parts C–E included dose-escalation (2 and 4 mg/kg loading followed by 1 mg/kg) and dose-expansion (4 mg/kg loading) phases with gemcitabine (Part C), pembrolizumab (Part D), or nivolumab (Part E). Primary endpoints included incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), serious adverse events (SAE), and pharmacokinetics. Secondary endpoints were efficacy and pharmacodynamics.

Results:

A total of 109 patients received TRX518: 43 (Parts A+B), 30 (Part C), 26 (Part D), and 10 (Part E), respectively. A total of 67% of patients in Parts D+E had received prior anti–PD(L)1 or anti–CTLA-4. No DLTs, treatment-related SAEs, and/or grade 4 or 5 AEs were observed with TRX518 monotherapy. In Parts C–E, no DLTs were observed, although TRX518-related SAEs were reported in 3.3% (Part C) and 10.0% (Part E), respectively. Objective response rate was 3.2%, 3.8%, 4%, and 12.5% in Parts A+B, C, D, and E, respectively. TRX518 affected peripheral and intratumoral regulatory T cells (Treg) with different kinetics depending on the combination regimen. Responses with TRX518 monotherapy+anti–PD1 combination were associated with intratumoral Treg reductions and CD8 increases and activation after treatment.

Conclusions:

TRX518 showed an acceptable safety profile with pharmacodynamic activity. Repeated dose TRX518 monotherapy and in combination resulted in limited clinical responses associated with immune activation.

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Supplementary data