Purpose:

MEDI0680 is a humanized anti–programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody, and durvalumab is an anti-PD-L1 antibody. Combining treatment using these antibodies may improve efficacy versus blockade of PD-1 alone. This phase II study evaluated antitumor activity and safety of MEDI0680 plus durvalumab versus nivolumab monotherapy in immunotherapy-naïve patients with advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma who received at least one prior line of antiangiogenic therapy.

Patients and Methods:

Patients received either MEDI0680 (20 mg/kg) with durvalumab (750 mg) or nivolumab (240 mg), all intravenous, every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included best overall response, progression-free survival (PFS), safety, overall survival (OS), and immunogenicity. Exploratory endpoints included changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), baseline tumor mutational burden, and tumor-infiltrated immune cell profiles.

Results:

Sixty-three patients were randomized (combination, n = 42; nivolumab, n = 21). ORR was 16.7% [7/42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.0–31.4] with combination treatment and 23.8% (5/21; 95% CI, 8.2–47.2) with nivolumab. Median PFS was 3.6 months in both arms; median OS was not reached in either arm. Because of adverse events, 23.8% of patients discontinued MEDI0680 and durvalumab and 14.3% of patients discontinued nivolumab. In the combination arm, reduction in ctDNA fraction was associated with longer PFS. ctDNA mutational analysis did not demonstrate an association with response in either arm. Tumor-infiltrated immune profiles showed an association between immune cell activation and response in the combination arm.

Conclusions:

MEDI0680 combined with durvalumab was safe and tolerable; however, it did not improve efficacy versus nivolumab monotherapy.

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Supplementary data