Purpose:

To evaluate efficacy and safety of venetoclax + azacitidine among treatment-naïve patients with FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia.

Patients and Methods:

Data were pooled from patients enrolled in a phase III study (NCT02993523) that compared patients treated with venetoclax + azacitidine or placebo + azacitidine and a prior phase Ib study (NCT02203773) where patients were treated with venetoclax + azacitidine. Enrolled patients were ineligible for intensive therapy due to age ≥75 years and/or comorbidities. Patients on venetoclax + azacitidine received venetoclax 400 mg orally (days 1–28) and azacitidine (75 mg/m2; days 1–7/28-day cycle). FLT3 mutation was analyzed centrally on pretreatment bone marrow aspirates.

Results:

In the biomarker evaluable population, FLT3 mutation was detected in 42 (15%) and 22 (19%) patients in the venetoclax + azacitidine and azacitidine groups. Composite complete remission [CRc; complete remission (CR) + CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi)] rates (venetoclax + azacitidine/azacitidine) for FLT3-mutant patients were 67%/36%, median duration of remission (DoR) was 17.3/5.0 months, and median OS was 12.5/8.6 months. The CRc rates among FLT3 wild-type patients were 67%/25%, median DoR 18.4/13.4 months, and median OS 14.7/10.1 months. In patients treated with venetoclax + azacitidine, CRc in patients with FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD was 63% and 77% and median OS was 9.9 and 19.2 months, and in comutated FLT3-ITD + NPM1 patients, CRc was 70%, median DoR was not reached, and median OS was 9.1 months. There were no unexpected toxicities in the venetoclax + azacitidine group.

Conclusions:

When treated with venetoclax + azacitidine, patients with FLT3 mutations and FLT3 wild-type had similar outcomes. Future analyses in larger patient populations may further define the impact of venetoclax + azacitidine in patients harboring FLT3-ITD.

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