We have previously reported that bryostation 1 (Bryo 1) induces differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in vitro to a hairy cell (HC) stage. This study tests the hypothesis that Bryo 1-differentiated CLL cells are more susceptible to 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) than parent CLL cells. A recently established EBV-negative CLL line (WSU-CLL) from a patient resistant to chemotherapy including fludarabine was used to test this hypothesis. Both Bryo 1 (10-1000 nM) and 2-CdA (5.6-22.4 microM) exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect on the WSU-CLL cell line. In vitro, the sequential exposure to Bryo 1 (100 nM for 72 h) followed by 2-CdA (11.2 microM) resulted in significantly higher rates of growth inhibition than either agent alone. Changes in immunophenotype, enzymes, lipids, proteins, and the DNA of WSU-CLL cells were studied before and after Bryo 1 treatment. Bryo 1 induced a positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase reaction and two important markers, CD11c and CD25, after 72 h of culture, confirming the differentiation of CLL to HC. The Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the amount of membrane lipids significantly increased in Bryo 1-treated cells compared to controls after 24 h, whereas the protein content, as well as the DNA content, decreased. This finding supports the change of CLL to HC. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of Bryo 1 and 2-CdA, we used a xenograft model of CLL in WSU-CLL-bearing mice with severe combined immune deficiency. s.c. tumors were developed by injection of 10(7) WSU-CLL cells, and fragments were then transplanted into a new batch of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Bryo 1 and 2-CdA at the maximum tolerated doses (75 micrograms/kg i.p. and 30 mg/kg s.c., respectively) were administered to the mice at different combinations and schedules. The survival in days, the tumor growth inhibition ratio, the tumor growth delay, and the log10 kill of the mice treated with Bryo 1 followed by 2-CdA were significantly better than the control and other groups. We conclude that the sequential treatment with Bryo 1 followed by 2-CdA resulted in higher antitumor activity and improved animal survival.

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