Although high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) are highly chemosensitive with an 85% initial response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy, 15% of patients are “exceptional nonresponders,” with platinum-refractory tumors that remain stable or progress during treatment. Unfortunately, we have no predictive biomarkers to identify refractory patients up front, and they receive futile chemotherapy through which most patients become too ill to be eligible for clinical trials. Hence, no progress has been made in treating these deadly tumors. The goal of this study is to identify mechanisms of platinum refractoriness to: i) predict refractory HGSOCs up front and ii) identify potential new drug targets in refractory disease to point to desperately needed new therapeutic approaches. Of note, 80-90% of patients who are initially platinum responsive will relapse and develop platinum-resistant disease, and it is possible that findings in platinum-refractory tumors might also provide insights into platinum-resistant tumors. Our NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC)-funded approach combines genomic and proteomic (“proteogenomic”) analyses of both preclinical models (0, 8, and 24 hours post-platinum exposure) and treatment-naïve human tumors. For preclinical models, we studied a well-characterized collection of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models (10 sensitive, 10 refractory), as well as intrapatient HGSOC cell line pairs derived from patients before and after the development of platinum resistance. For the PDX models, proteogenomic profiling included RNASeq, WES, global proteomics, and phosphoproteomics at all 3 time points (0, 8, 24 hours). For cell line models (3 sensitive, 3 resistant), proteogenomic profiling was performed at all 3 timepoints (0, 8, 24 hours), and experiments were performed in complete biologic triplicate. Analyses included RNASeq, WES, global proteomics, phosphoproteomics, ubiquitin proteome, acetylated proteome, and pTyr. A large collection of 275 human HGSOCs (an approximate equal balance of platinum sensitive and refractory tumors) is currently undergoing proteomic profiling, and genomic profiles (WGS, RNASeq) will be performed on a subset. In parallel, we have performed a comprehensive review of 31 years of published work on platinum responses of human cancers, identifying ~700 genes implicated in the response and scoring each gene with respect to strength of the published evidence. Using a Bayesian approach, we are integrating the curated candidates from the literature with our empirical proteogenomic datasets to identify a candidate signature for detecting platinum-refractory disease prior to chemotherapy. We are also performing gene-regulatory network analysis to identify potential drivers of chemo response. NextGen, targeted, multiplex, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry-based assays are being developed to quantify proteins in the signature for validation studies, using independent patient cohorts.

This abstract is also being presented as Poster A62.

Citation Format: Jacob J. Kennedy, Shrabanti Chowdhury, Sara R. Savage, Xiaonan Hou, Catherine J. Huntoon, Richard G. Ivey, Qing Yu, Chenwei Lin, Dongqing Huang, Lei Zhao, Uliana J. Voytovich, Regine M. Schoenherr, Zahra Shire, Steven J. Skates, Jeffrey R. Whiteaker, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Samuel C. Mok, Bing Zhang, Larry M. Karnitz, S. John Weroha, Steven P. Gygi, Scott H. Kaufmann, Pei Wang, Michael J. Birrer, Amanda G. Paulovich. Proteogenomic approach to identify mechanisms of platinum refractoriness in high-grade serous ovarian cancers [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference on Advances in Ovarian Cancer Research; 2019 Sep 13-16, 2019; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Clin Cancer Res 2020;26(13_Suppl):Abstract nr PR02.