Ovarian cancer accounts for the highest number of gynecologic-associated deaths in the developed world, and resistance to platinum-based therapy represents a major clinical and societal challenge in patients’ management. Since metabolism is intertwined with signaling pathways controlling cell death, we aimed to investigate to what extent metabolic adaptations could contribute to the development of the resistant phenotype. By performing isotope-labeled 13C-glucose tracer analysis in vitro, we found that, when they become resistant to platinum, ovarian cancer cells stop to synthetize serine and are characterized by significantly lower intracellular levels of this amino acid compared to sensitive cells. However, serine is required for cellular growth and survival, and resistant cells increase its uptake from the medium, becoming exquisitely vulnerable to serine starvation. We showed that, although resistant cells accumulate DNA damage upon platinum treatment, they have a higher capacity of repairing it because of increased poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) activity, compared to the sensitive ones. Since PARP enzymes are major oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-consuming enzymes, we collected evidence that serine synthesis downregulation, as a consequence of central carbon metabolic reshuffling, provides resistant cells with the advantage of sparing NAD+, thus sustaining PARP activation and allowing a more efficient DNA repair. We confirmed that downregulation of serine synthesis is a peculiar trait of resistant tumors also in vivo, using patient-derived xenografts (PDX) ovarian cancer models subjected to serine/glycine free diet. Moreover, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA) ovarian cancer dataset revealed that tumors from platinum-resistant patients are characterized by a downregulation of serine biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting that serine auxotrophy could represent a novel and exploitable vulnerability of platinum-resistant ovarian cancers.
Citation Format: Tom Van Nyen, Joao A.G. Duarte, Matteo Rossi, Mélanie Planque, Esther Zaal, Ali Talebi, Stijn Moens, Guy Eelen, Hugo Horlings, Johan Swinnen, Celia Berkers, Peter Carmeliet, Reuven Agami, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Diether Lambrechts, Daniela Annibali, Frederic Amant. Serine auxotrophy: A novel metabolic vulnerability of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer? [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference on Advances in Ovarian Cancer Research; 2019 Sep 13-16, 2019; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Clin Cancer Res 2020;26(13_Suppl):Abstract nr A75.