Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Despite a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and the onset of lung cancer, the prevalence of smoking still remains high. Strategies to eliminate cigarette smoking have led to the emergence of new tobacco-related products as alternatives for cigarette smoking or tools for smoking cessation. The electronic cigarette (ECIG) is a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Since nicotine is widely considered the addictive component in tobacco with limited ability to initiate cancer, ECIGs have been advertised to be a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes (TCIGs). However, the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of ECIGs have not previously been evaluated. In this study, we assess the impact of ECIG exposure on the carcinogenic potential of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells on a background of silenced p53 and activated KRAS (H3mut-P53/KRAS). This model is utilized because p53 and KRAS mutations are often observed in the airway of current and former smokers at risk for lung cancer. The epithelial cells were exposed to both a low and high concentration of nicotine in the ECIG vapor- or TCIG smoke-conditioned media. The lower nicotine concentration was selected to mimic the average plasma nicotine levels in ENDS users and did not demonstrate toxic or anti-proliferative effects on the cells. The higher concentration was chosen to represent the anticipated nicotine levels to which the epithelial cells of smokers are actually exposed. In anchorage independent growth assays, the in vitro correlate of malignant transformation, we found enhanced colony growth in the H3mut-P53/KRAS cells following a 10-day treatment with the high nicotine ECIG- and TCIG-conditioned media compared to the untreated and low nicotine treatment groups. We next assessed the effect of ECIG and TCIG exposure on cell invasion using a three-dimensional air-liquid interface (ALI) model. At baseline, H3mut-P53/KRAS cells exhibit invasive behavior in the ALI model, due to the downstream effects of P53 silencing and KRAS activation. Treatment of H3mut-P53/KRAS cells with low nicotine ECIG- and TCIG-conditioned media did not further enhance the degree of invasion observed in the untreated group. We will next examine the effects of high nicotine conditioned media on cell invasion. Finally, gene expression studies show 263 differentially expressed genes following in vitro exposure to ECIG-conditioned media for 96hrs. The high nicotine ECIG-conditioned media induced a gene expression pattern similar to TCIG- conditioned media and whole cigarette smoke exposure in the H3mut-P53/KRAS cells. Preliminary analyses indicate the observed ECIG-specific gene expression changes were concordantly changed following TCIG-conditioned media exposure. We will next compare the ECIG-induced gene expression signature to carcinogenicity-related gene signatures established in previous and ongoing clinical investigations and test ECIG-altered candidate genes for their ability to drive the malignant transformation of airway epithelial cells. These studies will determine the impact of ECIG exposure on lung carcinogenicity and provide needed scientific guidance to the FDA regarding the physiologic effects of ECIGs.
These studies were supported by funding from the following: NIH/NCI #U01CA152751 (SMD, TCW), NCI #U01CA152751-S1 (SMD, TCW, SJP), NCI #U01CA152751-AS (SMD, KK), NCI #T32-CA009120-36 (SMD, SJP, PCP), NIH/NHLBI #T32HL072752 (SMD, EL), University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP) #18FT-0060 (TCW), TRDRP #20KT-0055 (TCW), Lung Cancer SPORE P50CA70907 (JDM, JEL)
Citation Format: Stacy J. Park, Tonya C. Walser, Catalina Perdomo, Teresa Wang, Paul C. Pagano, Elvira L. Liclican, Kostyantyn Krysan, Jill E. Larsen, John D. Minna, Marc E. Lenburg, Avrum Spira, Steven M. Dubinett. The effect of e-cigarette exposure on airway epithelial cell gene expression and transformation. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-IASLC Joint Conference on Molecular Origins of Lung Cancer; 2014 Jan 6-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Clin Cancer Res 2014;20(2Suppl):Abstract nr B16.