Levi et al. Page 1494

Clinical differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma and adenoma presents a diagnostic challenge that often leads to unnecessary thyroidectomies. Levi and colleagues explored the utility of molecular photoacoustic imaging as a noninvasive method for detection of follicular thyroid cancer. Dual wavelength imaging of the matrix-metalloproteinase–activated photoacoustic probe revealed efficient activation and high accumulation of the probe in follicular tumors in mice. The combination of the intrinsic qualities of photoacoustic imaging and specificity that a molecular imaging agent imparts promises a safe, noninvasive, and inexpensive technique that can allow early diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas.

Zimmerman et al. Page 1458

Pronounced interindividual pharmacokinetic variability is common with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and may have implications for their clinical efficacy and toxicity. TKIs are extensively metabolized in the liver, but mechanisms of hepatocyte uptake remain unclear. After initial evaluation of TKI transport by OATP1B uptake carriers in vitro, Zimmerman and colleagues investigated the influence of these transporters on sorafenib elimination in transfected cell models as well as in transporter knockout and humanized mice. This study sheds light on factors affecting the elimination of sorafenib and its glucuronide conjugate and provides a framework for future investigations aimed at elucidating mechanisms of TKI pharmacologic variability.

Schoenfeld et al. Page 1612

Radiation therapy is an accepted treatment for prostate cancer; however, no commonly used factors predict outcome specifically following this treatment. Schoenfeld and colleagues identified an association between genetic variation in the inflammation-related RNASEL gene and outcome following prostate radiotherapy in a large cohort of men followed for cancer-specific outcomes. This association was not found in patients derived from the same cohort treated with radical prostatectomy. These data suggest that inherited variation in RNASEL may predict outcome following radiation therapy in a treatment-specific manner that could eventually be used to help guide treatment.

Mortland et al. Page 1620

Gemtuzumab-ozogamicin (GO), an anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, is a promising agent for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although GO has shown efficacy in a subset of patients, clinical response to it is heterogeneous, emphasizing the need for a better understanding of factors to identify patients who will or will not benefit from this treatment. Mortland and colleagues evaluated genetic variation in CD33 and identified coding polymorphisms predictive of clinical outcome in AML patients receiving a combination of the ADE regimen (cytarabine/daunorubicin/etoposide) and GO. Integration of this information as an independent prognostic marker into current cytogenetic/molecular-based risk classification models would present an opportunity to increase our accuracy in forecasting therapeutic outcome in AML.