The polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) has been linked to invasive properties of aggressive breast cancer. In this report, tissue microarray analysis of 190 breast carcinomas from a nested case-control study shows that EZH2 is significantly associated with interval breast cancers. Further, a strong relationship was found with tumor cell proliferation (by Ki-67 expression), locally advanced disease, metastasis at presentation, markers of the basal epithelial phenotype (positivity for cytokeratin 5/6 or P-cadherin), and p53 status. EZH2 expression was also significantly associated with glomeruloid microvascular proliferation, an aggressive angiogenic phenotype. For prediction of aggressive disease (any event of locally advanced disease, lymph node spread, or distant spread), EZH2 was the only variable of significance in multivariate analysis, whereas no additional information was given by Ki-67. Although EZH2 expression was significant in univariate survival analysis, only tumor cell proliferation and lymph node status were significant in the final multivariate model. In conclusion, our findings indicate an important relationship not only between EZH2 and markers of tumor cell proliferation but also with aggressive disease. These findings might be practically important and relevant because the polycomb group proteins have recently been suggested as candidates for targeted therapy.

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