Purpose:

This phase I trial aimed to determine the maximum tolerated fraction dose (MTFD) of hypofractionated radiotherapy (hypo-RT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy and subsequent consolidation immune checkpoint inhibitors (cICI) for patients with locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer.

Patients and Methods:

Split-course hypo-RT and hypoboost combined with concurrent chemotherapy was administered at three dose levels (DL), using a stepwise dose-escalation protocol. The sophisticated esophagus-sparing technique was implemented to restrict the dose to the esophagus. Patients who did not experience disease progression or unresolved ≥grade 2 (G2+) toxicities after RT received cICI. Each DL aimed to treat six patients. The MTFD was defined as the highest DL at which ≤2 patients of the six who were treated experienced treatment-related G3+ toxicity and ≤1 patient experienced G4+ toxicity within 12 months post-RT.

Results:

Eighteen patients were enrolled, with six patients in each DL. All patients completed hypo-RT and concurrent chemotherapy, and 16 (88.9%) received at least one infusion of cICI, with a median of 10 infusions. Within the 12-month assessment period, one patient in DL1 experienced G3 pneumonitis, and one patient in DL3 developed G3 tracheobronchitis. The MTFD was not reached. The objective response rate was 100%. With a median follow-up of 20.9 months, the 1-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 94.4% and 83.3%, respectively.

Conclusions:

Utilizing the split-course hypo-RT and hypoboost approach, a fraction dose of 5 Gy to a total dose of 60 Gy, combined with concurrent chemotherapy and subsequent cICI, was well tolerated and yielded a promising objective response rate and survival outcomes.

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