We investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of anti–PD-L1 antibody (ZKAB001) as maintenance therapy for localized patients with high-grade osteosarcoma to reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis.

Experimental Design:

This open-label Phase I/II study was divided into dose-escalation Phase I and expansion Phase II. Phase I used a 3+3 design with ZKAB001 at three escalating doses ranging: 5, 10, 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks in 9 patients with localized high-grade osteosarcoma and Phase II tested 10 mg/kg in 12 patients for up to 24 cycles. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability assessed using CTCAE4.0.3.


Between October 2018 and 2019, 21 eligible patients were enrolled and accepted ZKAB001 treatment: 9 in the dose-escalation phase, and 12 in expansion phase. Six patients with disease progression withdrew from this study and follow-up is ongoing. The MTD was not defined in Phase I. All doses had a manageable safety profile. The recommended dose in Phase II was set at 10 mg/kg. Most frequent immune-related adverse events were thyroiditis (76.2%) and dermatitis (42.9%). Only 1 (4.8%) of 21 patients had a Grade 3 skin rash. The median 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were not established; however, 24-month EFS was 71.4% (95% confidence interval, 47.2–86.0) and 2-year OS was 100%. Preliminary efficacy data showed EFS benefits in patients with PD-L1 positive or an MSI-H sub-population.


Switching to maintenance using ZKAB001 showed an acceptable safety profile and provided preliminary evidence of clinical activity in localized patients with osteosarcoma.

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