Purpose: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown great promise for treating hematologic malignancies but requires a long duration of T-cell expansion, is associated with severe toxicity, and has limited efficacy for treating solid tumors. We designed experiments to address those challenges. Experimental Design: We generated a cell membrane-anchored and tumor-targeted interleukin-12 (attIL12) to arm peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) instead of T cells to omit the expansion phase for required CAR-T cells. Results: This IL12-based attIL12-PBMC therapy showed significant antitumor efficacy in both heterogeneous osteosarcoma patient-derived xenograft tumors and metastatic osteosarcoma tumors with no observable toxic effects. Mechanistically, attIL12-PBMC treatment resulted in tumor-restricted antitumor cytokine release and accumulation of attIL12-PBMCs in tumors. It also induced terminal differentiation of osteosarcoma cells into bone like cells to impede tumor growth. Conclusions: In summary, attIL12-PBMC therapy is safe and effective against osteosarcoma. Our goal is to move this treatment into a clinical trial. Owing to the convenience of the attIL12-PBMC production process, we believe it will be feasible.

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