Purpose: Determine the safety and specificity of a tumor-targeted radiotracer (89Zr-pan) in combination with 18F-FDG PET/CT to improve diagnostic accuracy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Experimental Design: Adult patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC scheduled for standard of care surgery were enrolled in a clinical trial and underwent systemic administration of 89Zirconium-panitumumab and panitumumab-IRDye800 followed by preoperative 89Zr-pan PET/CT and intraoperative fluorescence imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were evaluated. Results: A total of fourteen patients were enrolled and completed the study. Four patients (28.5%) had areas of high 18F-FDG uptake outside the head and neck region with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) greater than 2.0 that were not detected on 89Zr-pan PET/CT. These four patients with incidental findings underwent further workup and had no evidence of cancer on biopsy or clinical follow-up. Forty-eight lesions (primary tumor, LNs, incidental findings) with SUVmax ranging 2.0 – 23.6 were visualized on 18F-FDG PET/CT; 34 lesions on 89Zr-pan PET/CT with SUVmax ranging 0.9 – 10.5. The combined ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT and 89Zr-pan PET/CT to detect HNSCC in the whole body was improved with higher specificity of 96.3% (confidence interval (CI) 89.2 – 100%) compared to 18F-FDG PET/CT alone with specificity of 74.1% (CI 74.1 – 90.6%). One possibly related grade 1 adverse event of prolonged QTc (460 ms) was reported but resolved in follow-up. Conclusions: 89Zr-pan PET/CT imaging is safe and may be valuable in discriminating incidental findings identified on 18F-FDG-PET/CT from true positive lesions and in localizing metastatic LNs.

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