Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that represent an important clinical challenge, particularly given their strong tendency to relapse and metastasize and their relatively poor response to conventional therapies. To date, targeted, noncytotoxic treatments have demonstrated limited clinical success with MPNSTs, highlighting the need to explore other key pathways to find novel, improved therapeutic approaches. Here, we review evidence supporting the crucial role of the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway and angiogenesis in MPNST pathogenesis, and we focus on the potential of therapies targeting these pathways to treat this disease. We also present works suggesting that the combination of MEK inhibitors and antiangiogenic agents could represent a promising therapeutic strategy to manage MPNSTs. In support of this notion, we discuss the preclinical rational and clinical benefits of this combination therapy in other solid tumor types. Finally, we describe other emerging therapeutic approaches that could improve patient outcomes in MPNSTs, such as immune-based therapies.

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