The response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer is variable. Here, we explored the differential response to ICIs according to different mismatch repair alterations

Experimental Design:

Colorectal cancer (N = 13,701) and endometrial cancer (N = 3,315) specimens were tested at Caris Life Sciences. Median overall survival (mOS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier. The prediction of high-, intermediate-, and low-affinity epitopes by tumor mutation burden (TMB) values was conducted using R-squared (R2).


Compared with mutL (MLH1 and PMS2) co-loss, the mOS was longer in mutS (MSH2 and MSH6) co-loss in all colorectal cancer (54.6 vs. 36 months; P = 0.0.025) and endometrial cancer (81.5 vs. 48.2 months; P < 0.001) patients. In ICI-treated patients, the mOS was longer in mutS co-loss in colorectal cancer [not reached (NR) vs. 36 months; P = 0.011). In endometrial cancer, the mOS was NR vs. 42.2 months; P = 0.711]. The neoantigen load (NAL) in mutS co-loss compared with mutL co-loss was higher in colorectal cancer (high-affinity epitopes: 25.5 vs. 19; q = 0.017, intermediate: 39 vs. 32; q = 0.004, low: 87.5 vs. 73; q < 0.001) and endometrial cancer (high-affinity epitopes: 15 vs. 11; q = 0.002, intermediate: 27.5 vs. 19; q < 0.001, low: 59 vs. 41; q < 0.001), respectively. R2 ranged from 0.25 in mutS co-loss colorectal cancer to 0.95 in mutL co-loss endometrial cancer.


Patients with mutS co-loss experienced longer mOS in colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer and better response to ICIs in colorectal cancer. Among all explored biomarkers, NAL was higher in mutS co-loss and may be a potential driving factor for the observed better outcomes. TMB did not reliably predict NAL.

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