Distinguishing low- versus high-risk HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is pivotal for tailoring treatment. Liquid biopsy, measuring cell-free HPV-DNA in serum and saliva, assesses treatment response and early-recurrence risk. Postoperative lymphatic fluid may better guide future adjuvant therapy decisions due to its proximity to primary lesions and lymph nodes.

See related article by Earland et al., p. 1409

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