FGFR2 and FGFR3 show oncogenic activation in many cancer types, often through chromosomal fusion or extracellular domain mutation. FGFR2 and FGFR3 alterations are most prevalent in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and bladder cancers, respectively, and multiple selective reversible and covalent pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been approved in these contexts. However, resistance, often due to acquired secondary mutations in the FGFR2/3 kinase domain, limits efficacy. Resistance is typically polyclonal, involving a spectrum of different mutations that most frequently affect the molecular brake and gatekeeper residues (N550 and V565 in FGFR2).

Experimental Design:

Here, we characterize the activity of the next-generation covalent FGFR inhibitor, KIN-3248, in preclinical models of FGFR2 fusion+ ICC harboring a series of secondary kinase domain mutations, in vitro and in vivo. We also test select FGFR3 alleles in bladder cancer models.


KIN-3248 exhibits potent selectivity for FGFR1–3 and retains activity against various FGFR2 kinase domain mutations, in addition to being effective against FGFR3 V555M and N540K mutations. Notably, KIN-3248 activity extends to the FGFR2 V565F gatekeeper mutation, which causes profound resistance to currently approved FGFR inhibitors. Combination treatment with EGFR or MEK inhibitors potentiates KIN-3248 efficacy in vivo, including in models harboring FGFR2 kinase domain mutations.


Thus, KIN-3248 is a novel FGFR1–4 inhibitor whose distinct activity profile against FGFR kinase domain mutations highlights its potential for the treatment of ICC and other FGFR-driven cancers.

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