Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common brain malignancy with median survival <2 years. Standard-of-care temozolomide has marginal efficacy in approximately 70% of patients due to MGMT expression. LP-184 is an acylfulvene-derived prodrug activated by the oxidoreductase PTGR1 that alkylates at N3-adenine, not reported to be repaired by MGMT. This article examines LP-184 efficacy against preclinical GBM models and identifies molecular predictors of LP-184 efficacy in clinical GBM.

Experimental Design:

LP-184 effects on GBM cell viability and DNA damage were determined using cell lines, primary PDX-derived cells and patient-derived neurospheres. GBM cell sensitivities to LP-184 relative to temozolomide and MGMT expression were examined. Pharmacokinetics and CNS bioavailability were evaluated in mice with GBM xenografts. LP-184 effects on GBM xenograft growth and animal survival were determined. Machine learning, bioinformatic tools, and clinical databases identified molecular predictors of GBM cells and tumors to LP-184 responsiveness.


LP-184 inhibited viability of multiple GBM cell isolates including temozolomide-resistant and MGMT-expressing cells at IC50 = approximately 22–310 nmol/L. Pharmacokinetics showed favorable AUCbrain/plasma and AUCtumor/plasma ratios of 0.11 (brain Cmax = 839 nmol/L) and 0.2 (tumor Cmax = 2,530 nmol/L), respectively. LP-184 induced regression of GBM xenografts and prolonged survival of mice bearing orthotopic xenografts. Bioinformatic analyses identified PTGR1 elevation in clinical GBM subtypes and associated LP-184 sensitivity with EGFR signaling, low nucleotide excision repair (NER), and low ERCC3 expression. Spironolactone, which induces ERCC3 degradation, decreased LP-184 IC50 3 to 6 fold and enhanced GBM xenograft antitumor responses.


These results establish LP-184 as a promising chemotherapeutic for GBM with enhanced efficacy in intrinsic or spironolactone-induced TC-NER–deficient tumors.

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