Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascularized tumor with few treatment options after disease recurrence. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of anlotinib hydrochloride plus temozolomide in patients with recurrent GBM.

Patients and Methods:

Patients with first definite postsurgical progression of histologically confirmed GBM preceded by standard radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy were eligible for inclusion. All patients received temozolomide (150–200 mg/m2, orally, every day (QD) d1–5/4 wk) and anlotinib (10 mg, orally, QD, d1–14/3 wk) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate by the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria.


Twenty-one patients were enrolled between May 2020 and July 2021, with a median age of 55 (range 27–68) years old. According to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria, tumor response occurred in 17 patients, of which 9 patients had a complete response, and the objective response rate was 81.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62.6–99.3]. The disease control rate was 95.2% (95% CI, 76.2–99.9), with three additional patients achieving a stable disease without tumor progression. The median PFS was 7.3 months (95% CI, 4.9–9.7), and the 6-month PFS rate was 61.9% (95% CI, 39.3–84.6). The median overall survival was 16.9 months (95% CI, 7.8–26.0). The most common adverse events were leukocytopenia (66.7%), thrombocytopenia (38.1%), and hypertriglyceridemia (38.1%). Five patients had nine grade 3 adverse events, with a 23.8% incidence rate. Two patients discontinued therapy due to ischemic stroke (grade 3) and wound dehiscence (grade 1), respectively. No grade 4 or treatment-related deaths occurred in this study.


Anlotinib combined with temozolomide is efficacious and tolerated in patients with recurrent GBM.

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