The current landscape of targeted therapies directed against oncogenic driver alterations in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is expanding. Patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC can derive significant benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, including the third-generation EGFR TKI osimertinib. However, invariably, all patients will experience disease progression with this therapy mainly due to the adaptation of cancer cells through primary or secondary molecular mechanisms of resistance. The comprehension and access to tissue and cell-free DNA next-generation sequencing have fueled the development of innovative therapeutic strategies to prevent and overcome resistance to osimertinib in the clinical setting. Herein, we review the biological and clinical implications of molecular mechanisms of osimertinib resistance and the ongoing development of therapeutic strategies to overcome or prevent resistance.