Purpose:

We evaluated the efficacy of bavituximab—a mAb with anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties—in newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma (GBM) who also received radiotherapy and temozolomide. Perfusion MRI and myeloid-related gene transcription and inflammatory infiltrates in pre-and post-treatment tumor specimens were studied to evaluate on-target effects (NCT03139916).

Patients and Methods:

Thirty-three adults with IDH--wild-type GBM received 6 weeks of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by 6 cycles of temozolomide (C1-C6). Bavituximab was given weekly, starting week 1 of chemoradiotherapy, for at least 18 weeks. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at 12 months (OS-12). The null hypothesis would be rejected if OS-12 was ≥72%. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and vascular permeability (Ktrans) were calculated from perfusion MRIs. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor tissue were analyzed pre-treatment and at disease progression using RNA transcriptomics and multispectral immunofluorescence for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and macrophages.

Results:

The study met its primary endpoint with an OS-12 of 73% (95% confidence interval, 59%–90%). Decreased pre-C1 rCBF (HR, 4.63; P = 0.029) and increased pre-C1 Ktrans were associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.09; P = 0.005). Pre-treatment overexpression of myeloid-related genes in tumor tissue was associated with longer survival. Post-treatment tumor specimens contained fewer immunosuppressive MDSCs (P = 0.01).

Conclusions:

Bavituximab has activity in newly diagnosed GBM and resulted in on-target depletion of intratumoral immunosuppressive MDSCs. Elevated pre-treatment expression of myeloid-related transcripts in GBM may predict response to bavituximab.

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