Purpose:

Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is characterized by the somatic FOXL2 p.C134W mutation, and recurrences have been associated with TERT promoter and KMT2D-truncating mutations. Conversely, the molecular underpinnings of the rare juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) have not been well elucidated. To this end, we applied a tumor-only integrated approach to investigate the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic landscape of 31 JGCTs to identify putative oncogenic drivers.

Experimental Design:

Multipronged analyses of 31 JGCTs were performed utilizing a clinically validated next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel targeting 580 cancer-related genes for genomic interrogation, in addition to targeted RNA NGS for transcriptomic exploration. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was conducted using an Infinium Methylation EPIC array targeting 866,562 CpG methylation sites.

Results:

We identified frequent KMT2C-truncating mutations along with other mutated genes implicated in the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, in addition to previously reported hotspot AKT1 and DICER1 mutations. Targeted transcriptome sequencing revealed recurrent TERT rearrangements (13%) involving partners CLPTM1L or DROSHA, and differential gene expression analysis showed FGFR1 upregulation in the TERT non-rearranged JGCTs under direct promoter control. Genome-wide DNA methylation rendered a clear delineation between AGCTs and JGCTs at the epigenomic level, further supporting its diagnostic utility in distinguishing among these tumors.

Conclusions:

This is the largest comprehensive molecular study of JGCTs, where we further expand our current understanding of JGCT pathogenesis and demonstrate putative oncogenic drivers and TERT rearrangements in a subset of tumors. Our findings further offer insights into possible targeted therapies in a rare entity.

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